Presentation on theme: "Writing Lesson 2 possessives, commas, parenthesis, colons, and dashes. Taken from The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E.B. White."— Presentation transcript:
Writing Lesson 2 possessives, commas, parenthesis, colons, and dashes. Taken from The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E.B. White
Possessives Form a possessive singular noun by adding an ‘s Charles’s friend Burns’s poems Andrew’s hatred
Possessives Form a possessive plural noun by placing and ‘s after the word Women’s If the word already ends in “s,” place the apostrophe after the word Teachers’
Commas – Rule 1 In a series of three or more items, place a comma after all but the last two. I like movies, popcorn, soda and candy.
Commas – Rule 2 Enclose parenthetic expressions within commas The best way to see the country, unless you are pressed for time, is to travel on foot. This is a difficult rule. Sometimes, it is hard to determine if one word (like “however”) or a brief phrase is “parenthetic” or not completely necessary to the true meaning of the sentence. If the pause is a brief one, the commas can be omitted. The following sentences contain major errors with this rule and would DEFINITELY be marked incorrect!
Edit! Marjorie’s husband, Col. Nelson paid a visit yesterday. My brother you will be pleased to hear, is now in perfect health.
Correct Answers! Marjorie’s husband, Col. Nelson, paid a visit yesterday. If it is the 1 st time you mention a name, the name is NECESSARY to the meaning of the sentence and commas may be omitted! Marjorie’s husband Col. Nelson paid a visit. My brother, you will be pleased to hear, is now in perfect health.
Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive Clauses Nonrestrictive – Does not limit or define, merely ADDS to the sentence. Restrictive – Limits the meaning of the sentence. The clause is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. Without it, the sentence makes no sense!
Restrictive or Nonrestrictive? People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. The audience which at first was bored finally showed interest. People sitting in the back couldn’t hear. Uncle Bert being slightly deaf had to move forward.
Correct Answers! People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. Restrictive – NO COMMAS The audience, which at first was bored, finally showed interest. Nonrestrictive – SURROUND WITH COMMAS People sitting in the back couldn’t hear. Restrictive – NO COMMAS Uncle Bert, being slightly deaf, had to move forward. Nonrestrictive – SURROUND WITH COMMAS
Commas – Rule 3 Place a comma before a conjunction and an independent clause (a clause that could be a sentence on its own). The situation is dangerous, but there is still a chance of escape.
Place commas where they belong, if needed! Her work is entertaining and it is full of great ideas. I am greatly concerned with her behavior and I resent her actions. The cat runs in circles and paws at the curtains.
Correct Answers! Her work is entertaining, and it is full of great ideas. I am greatly concerned with her behavior, and I resent her actions. The cat runs in circles and paws at the curtains.
Colon – Rule 1 Use a colon to set off a list You carry the tools of a dedicated student: books, pens, and brains!
Colon – Rule 2 Join two independent clauses if the 2 nd amplifies the 1 st. I ran into the building because I was late: it was my third violation.
Colon – Rules 3 and 4 Use a colon to set off a long quotation Use a colon to follow the salutation in a formal letter
The dash Use the dash like the comma, only when you want to make a more pronounced break in the sentence. His first thought on getting out of bed–if he had any thought at all–was to get back in again.
Add commas and dashes where they are needed! The rear axle began to make a noise a grinding chattering scary rasp. The increasing reluctance of the sun to rise the extra nip in the breeze the patter of shed leaves dropping all the evidences of fall drifting into winter were clearer each day.
Correct Answers! The rear axle began to make a noise - a grinding, chattering, scary rasp. The increasing reluctance of the sun to rise, the extra nip in the breeze, the patter of shed leaves dropping- all the evidences of fall drifting into winter were clearer each day.
Writing Assignment! Write a paragraph describing an interesting or unusual family holiday from your childhood. Use the dash, comma, and apostrophe successfully throughout with a variety of sentence types.
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