Presentation on theme: "FrenchBritish The British vs. the French in America -Catholic -Few Permanent settlements -Main Econ. Activity is the fur trade -Preferred by Natives -Many."— Presentation transcript:
FrenchBritish The British vs. the French in America -Catholic -Few Permanent settlements -Main Econ. Activity is the fur trade -Preferred by Natives -Many native allies -Protestant -Permanent settlements and large towns -Chief Econ. Activity is farming -Few native allies - Growing Rich from America - World Empires - Wealthy Nations
Dates: 1754 to 1763 Location: Quebec, Northeastern Coast and Great Lakes region (Western Pennsylvania!) French and Algonquin tribes vs. British, American Colonists and Iroquois Confederacy Expanded into Europe as the Seven Years War (1756–1763) British Victory: Treaty of Paris-1763
Washington and Christopher Gist are sent to deliver a message to the French. They travel from VA to Ft. LeBeouf (near Lake Erie). The message tells the French that the British claim the land known as the “Ohio Country” (west of the Appalachian Mtns.) The French claim the land is theirs!
…While crossing the Allegheny River on a raft. …Managed to make it to a small island in the river. By morning, they were able to cross over the frozen river to safety. G.W.‘s life is spared - #1
G.W. and VA militia (citizen soldiers) are assigned to build a fort at the “forks of the Ohio” They find the French have already built a fort – Ft. Duquesne. Washington and his men leave to return to VA with the information.
Battle of Jumonville Glen May 28, 1754 Ultimately triggers Seven Years’ War Lt. George Washington and 40 soldiers ambush French militia led by Ensign de Jumonville Jumonville killed in battle, an act which starts the war
Washington and his militia ambush French soldiers as they have breakfast. The French leader, Ensign Coulon de Jumonville is killed. These shots start the F&I War also called the ‘Seven Years War’ (1756-63) in Europe.
G.W. and his militia hastily built a stockade for protection from the French & Indians – called Ft. Necessity. A strong storm wet their powder and flooded the fort. Washington and his men were captured.
The document was written in French (G.W. could not read French). He and his men were permitted to march out since France and GB were not officially at war. By signing the paper, G.W. unknowingly admitted to assassinating the French leader Jumonville… G.W.’s life is spared - #2
Braddock with 2,600 British soldiers march toward Ft. Duquesne, attempting to capture it. They make a road from VA to the OH Country. After crossing the Mon. river, they march on at Turtle Creek (near Kennywood Park today). The march in order while playing drums!
G.Washington, acting as a guide (Aide-de-Camp) for the British, warns Braddock that the French & Indians will use ‘guerilla tactics’ in battle (shoot from cover then move to new spots). Braddock does not heed G.W’s warning’ 1000 British are killed along with Gen.Braddock Regular forces (French and Britsh) use European tactics: -Soldiers form parallel lines and face off at 100 yards or less -Several volleys of musket fire precede a bayonet charge
Battle of the Monongahela July 9, 1755 Tough terrain French defenders prepare an ambush Braddock fatally wounded George Washington becomes a hero French inflict defeat on British
Washington helped the British retreat while carrying the mortally wounded Braddock. G.W. had bullets go through his coat and horses shot from under him – his life is spared again! - #3. Braddock is buried under the road in the mountains (1 mile west of Fort Necessity)
William Pitt takes over wartime operations and plans a new campaign to defeat the French in the OH Country. This is seen as the turning point of the war. In 1757, he gives command to Gen. Forbes along with 2000 British troops. Forbes cuts a road across PA to take Ft. Duquesne. Ft. Ligonier (Loyalhannah)
About 50 miles from Ft. Duquesne, this fort was Forbes’ advance base for their march to capture the French fort. French & Indians stage an attack on Ft. Ligonier to make the British think they are a powerful force. G.W. stops a ‘friendly fire’ incident – saved #4
The ‘trick’ fails when a prisoner from Ft. Duquesne informs the British that the French have very few men and few Indian allies at this time. With weather conditions deteriorating, they begin the final assault on Ft. Duquesne.
Camped a few miles away, the British hear explosions and learn that the French blew up parts of their fort and abandoned it. The British allow it to burn down and later begin constructing Ft. Pitt. British in control of the OH Country.
With loss of Quebec (1759), New France is practically finished French Navy in Europe defeated at Quiberon Bay, cannot send help British blockade Montreal Only a matter of time before French are finished off.
February 10, 1763 Signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain, with Portugal in agreement France loses New France and all claims to the territory east of the Mississippi River Spain ceded Florida to British, but later gets New Orleans and Louisiana from France France retained islands Saint Pierre Miquelon
British Colonel Henry Bouquet returns to the OH Country with British troops to stop Indian raids on settlers near Ft. Pitt. He marches across PA using Forbes’ Road (today’s Rt. 30). The battle took place at Bushy Run (near today’s Greensburg).
England now largest colonial empire in the world The Colonists are independence minded under British rule North America most prosperous area on earth The French still continue to inhabit areas around Quebec and Montreal
The war gave control of North America to British Colonial officers fought in the Revolutionary War France and Spain cede control to England and never regain former possessions Legacy of French colonialism lives on today in French- speaking Quebec Eastern Native American tribes suffered greatly and continued rapid decline