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Our English Heritage. King Henry II Established Common Law (1166 A.D.) Created Trial by Jury of 12 Peers.

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Presentation on theme: "Our English Heritage. King Henry II Established Common Law (1166 A.D.) Created Trial by Jury of 12 Peers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Our English Heritage

2 King Henry II Established Common Law (1166 A.D.) Created Trial by Jury of 12 Peers

3 King John “Lackland” Signs Magna Carta (1215) -Establishes Due Process of Law - Trials and Punishments by law - Arrests and Warrants - Tax increases must be approved by voters - Power shifts from King to House of Lords

4 King Henry VIII -Has no ____________________ -Asks Pope for a __________ - Pope __________ -Henry splits from Catholic Church, creates the Church of England answering to himself -This leads to a century of bloody Catholic v. Protestant conflict sons that survive him divorce refuses

5 King Charles I Petition of Right - expands and strengthens Magna Carta rights - freedoms from unreasonable search and seizure - prohibition against quartering of troops in homes DENIED BY KING

6 Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell - Oliver Cromwell v. Charles I and II and the English Civil War - Cromwell & the Puritans v. Catholic Kings Charles I & II

7 The Constitutional (and Puritan) Government of Oliver Cromwell Puritans depose and execute Charles I written constitution for government elected republic instead of King, with Cromwell elected as “Lord Protector of England” King Charles II restored after death of Cromwell and years of blood and violence

8 The Glorious Revolution (1688) Parliament votes out King James II and votes in William and Mary In exchange for being made King and Queen, they sign away power in the English Bill of Rights

9 English Bill of Rights –Power shifts from King and House of Lords to House of Commons –King cannot without Parliament’s consent: suspend laws raise taxes maintain an army interfere in elections inflict cruel and unusual punishments impose excessive fines or bail –people given the right to a speedy trial –jury composed of peers –right to petition the government

10 John Locke –all men are created equal –life, liberty, and property –government only legitimate when people agree to be governed

11 Colonial Government

12 Pilgrims Mayflower Compact (1620) In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwriten, the loyal subjects of our dread sovereign Lord King James by the grace of God, of Great Britaine, Franc, & Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, etc. Hving undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith and honour of our King & country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly & mutualy in the presence of God, and one of another, covenant & combine our selves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering & preservation & furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hearof to enact, constitute, and frame such just & equal laws, ordinances, Acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet & convenient for the general good of the Colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness wherof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11 of November, in the year of the reign of our sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, & Ireland the Eighteenth, and of Scotland the Fifty Fourth. Anno Domine 1620.

13 Religious laws Loyalty to King House of Burgesses (1619, Virginia Colony) –First elected government in America

14 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut –Elected government –Term limits –Limited government –Areligious Colonial Charters –Separation of powers –Self-government, but override by King possible

15 The American Revolution

16 French & Indian War Proclamation of 1763 Various Taxes Sugar Act Stamp Act Townshend Acts Tea Act

17 Boston Massacre !

18 Boston Tea Party

19 Intolerable Acts - Quartering Troops - Boston Shut Down 1 st Continental Congress Boycott and Embargo

20 Lexington and Concord 1775 “The Shot Heard ‘Round the World”

21 2 nd Continental Congress (1776) John Hancock, President Geo. Washington, Commander-in-Chief Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine - Common Sense - The American Crisis

22 The Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson, with a little help from John Adams and Ben Franklin (and the rest of Congress) 4 July 1776

23 The Articles of Confederation (The FIRST United States of America) Created while the American Revolution was underway

24 The need for government – any government Colonies wanted 13 separate states, not one nation Created weak – on purpose - Unicameral legislature - Confederation, not a nation - No executive branch - No judiciary - No army - No taxes

25 - Amendments required a unanimous vote - Each state = 1 vote - Laws required 9 of 13 states to pass - Took from 1777 to 1781 to ratify(approve) NO amendments ever passed

26 Land Ordinance of solved western land claims

27 Northwest Ordinance (1787) - established a process to create territorial governments - established a process to create new states

28 Shays’ Rebellion (1787) - war debts v. high taxes - angry farmers & war veterans storm arsenal

29 - U.S. government had no army to stop them - had to beg states to send troops. Many didn’t. - Stopped by Massachusetts Militia New Constitution needed - James Madison, the Federalist Papers - Federalists v. Anti-Federalists o Federalists – agreed with new Constitution, good balance o Anti-Federalists – feared new Constitution was too powerful

30 - Virginia Plan = # of Reps. based on population - New Jersey Plan = 1 vote per state - Connecticut Compromise = do both plans in bicameral legislature - 3/5 Compromise = how slaves would be counted towards # of Representatives for state, and for taxes - 3 branches of government established - Ratified 17 Sep Still functioning today

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