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Human Body Systems-an overview of Anatomy and Physiology-Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Body Systems-an overview of Anatomy and Physiology-Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Body Systems-an overview of Anatomy and Physiology-Notes

2 The Nervous System General info---- Controls and coordinates functions and ______________________________________________ The messages carried by the nervous systems are electrical SIGNALS called_______________________. These impulse carrying cells are called______________________. Responds to internal and external stimuli impulsesneurons

3 3 types according to direction: ____________________from sense organs to spinal cord and brain Motors neurons carry from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands. ______connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them Sensory neurons interneurons

4 Typical nerve cell

5 Cell body-nucleus and cytoplasm _______________-extensions that carry impulse from environment or other neurons to cell body _________-long fiber carrying away from cell body _____ contain neurotransmitter chemicals to transfer impulse The myelin sheath is an insulating membrane dendrites axonsAxon terminals

6 Nerves are made of a few to thousands of neurons An impulse begins when the nerve is stimulated by the environment or other neurons An _________results from a temporary influx of positive ions(Na+ ions in)-as impulse follows K+ ions flow out to restore to resting potential ____________-location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell. Action potential synapse

7 Divisions of Nervous System- Central nervous System relays messages,processes them and analyzes info- brain and spinal cord CNS has 3 layers of connective tissue called ________________________ meninges


9 Fluid within meninges is called_________________________________ ________________CSF Cerebral spinal fluid



12 ___________________________-largest and most prominent part of human brain-voluntary,conscious activities,intelligence,judgement,learning Connecting hemisphere- _________________________________________,one side controls opposite side of body,outer layer cerebral cortex-gray matter-packed nerve cell bodies,CEREBRAL CORTEX-processes info from sense organs and control body movements/and inner layer-white matter (axons w/myelin sheaths)and controls connects cortex and brain stem cerebrum Corpus collasum


14 _________________-2 nd largest region at back –coordinates and balances actions of muscles ___________-connects brain and spinal cord-pons and medulla oblongata-neural “switch-boards’-controls blood pressure,heart rate,______________________ The thalamus and hypothalamus---between brain stem and cerebrum-Thalamus receives receives info from sensory receptors and directs to cerebrum for processing/hypothalamus recognizes and analyzes hunger,thirst,fatigue,anger and body temperature and coordinates nervous and endocrine systems cerebellum Brain stem Breathing and swallowing

15 Spinal Cord-31 pairs of spinal nerves branching out PNS-Peripheral Nervous System-outside CNS-sensory division takes impulses from sense organs to CNS and ______________________________-takes impulses from CNS to muscles or glands _______________________Nervous System-activities under conscious control Autonomic NS regulates automatic or involuntary response…..Sympathetic system increase,for example,heart rate while parasympathetic decreases heart rate Motor division sympathetic

16 SKELETAL SYSTEM- General info- Functions in protection,movement and mineral reserves,blood cell formation ______________adult bones Axial and _____________________ skeleton 206 appendicular


18 Bones are solid network of living cells and protein fibers surrounded by calcium salts ____________________-tough connective tissue surrounding bone Haversion canals contain blood vessels and nerves _________________-mature bone cells ________________-break done bone _____________________ produce bone perioste um osteocytes osteoclasts osteoblasts


20 3 types of joints-immovable,slightly movable and freely movable _________________________--hold bones together in a joint ligaments

21 MUSCULAR SYSTEM_ Skeletal,smooth and cardiac Proteins myosin and _________________control contractions Fueled by ATP Neurotransmitter _____________________controls muscle innervations __________________-attach muscle to bones actin acetylcholine tendons


23 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM- General info-skin,hair nails,some glands and body coverings ______________--barrier against infection and injury,helps regulate body temp,remove waste and some protection from UV rays Skin has 2 layers:_______________ which has an outer dead layer,living cells below with keratin-,melanin producing cells and _______________which contains collagen,blood vessels,nerve endings,glands(sweat and sebaceous glands),sensory receptors,smooth muscles and hair Follicles-below dermis is subcutaneous fatty tissue and loose connective tissue skin epidermis dermis



26 Heart and blood vessels Heart is a muscle called ______________________________ Surrounded by protective tissue called ____________________________________ Average contractions 72 beats /min 4 chambered 2 upper atria and 2 lower ventricles/septum to prevent mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood myocardium pericardium

27 Right side pumps from heart to lungs- _______________________ and left side to rest of body- _____________ Circulation through heart-blood enters heart through left and right atria,contracts,then out ventricles to body or lungs ____________________-flaps preventing backflow Pulmonary circulation Systemic circulation valves


29 ________________________carry O2 rich blood from heart to tissues(with exception of pulmonary artery) ________________________________-smallest vessels responsible for gas diffusion and transport of nutrients ___________________-returns O2 poor blood to heart Blood pressure- :Systolic-force felt in arteries when ventricles contract =120/80 Diastolic-force of blood felt in arteries when ventricles relax arteries capillariesveins

30 BLOOD_ RBC’s (5 mill/1 milliter)transport O2 w/ hemoglobin,old red blood cells disposed in liver and spleen WBC’s much lesser in #-guard against infection,lymphocytes produce antibodies ______________-enable blood clotting platelets


32 Lymphatic System-network of vessels,nodes and organs that collect fluid lost by blood- ________________________-and return it to circulatory system-filtering out bacteria,etc. and absorb nutrients-includes thymus and spleen lymph


34 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Process of gas exchange Bring exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood,air and tissues



37 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM- Mouth-mastication-chewing and chemical break down with ________________________ Esophagus-with muscular action food passes from mouth down to stomach Stomach-Chemically HCl activates ___________________-digestive enzyme Mechanically stomach churns and mixes fluids and foods into ____________________ and then empties into small intestine Small intestine-1 st -_______________________ where almost all digestive enzymes enter-mix w/fluids from pancreas(an accessory digestive gland) and liver-bile disperses fat/then jejunum and illium-all main function absorption of nutrients Next large intestine-minus chyme-functions in removing water from what is left Next rectum Salivary amylase pepsin chyme duodenum


39 EXCRETORY SYSTEM- Remove waste from blood,maintain pH in blood,regulate water and blood volume Kidney-functional units are___________________________- each with its own blood supply-impurities are filtered out and enter collecting duct,purified blood exits _________________capillaries encased by bowman’s capsule-their filtrate enters-water,urea,glucose,salts,amino acids and vitamins-much renters blood Remaining material is _________________(inc. urea,salts and water)-collects in loop of Henle,where water is conserved and urine goes into bladder and out _______________- nephrons glomerulusurine urethra




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