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Intro to Human Anatomy Organs & Organ Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Intro to Human Anatomy Organs & Organ Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intro to Human Anatomy Organs & Organ Systems
Specialized Cells & Tissues Feedback Loops & Homeostasis

2 Human Anatomy A group of organs that perform closely related functions is an organ system. There are eleven organ systems in the body. You are responsible for knowing the name, structure and function of all eleven organ systems: Nervous – receives, processes and responds to stimuli about the world around us Integumentary – connects organs, holds the body together, and protects it Skeletal – works with muscular to enable movement and protects the organs Muscular – works with skeletal to enable movement Circulatory – circulates blood around body to deliver nutrients and remove waste Respiratory – provides body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Digestive – breaks down food into parts the body can use Excretory – cleans blood and rids body of the waste Endocrine – controls body processes via hormones Reproductive (male and female) – generates offspring Lymphatic / Immune – protects body from disease

3 Human Anatomy You are also responsible for knowing the name, specific location, and function of the following internal organs: Trachea Bronchi & bronchioles Esophagus Ureters Bladder Urethra Ovaries Testes Fallopian Tubes Uterus Hypothalamus Brain Spinal Cord Heart Lungs Diaphragm Kidneys Liver Pancreas Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine / Colon Rectum

4 Human Anatomy You are also responsible for knowing the general structure and function of the following: Blood (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets) Skin Glands Bones / Cartilage Ligaments Tendons Muscles (be able to differentiate between cardiac, smooth, and skeletal) Peripheral Nerves Blood Vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) Lymph Nodes and Vessels

5 Nervous System Function: Recognizes and coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environments Structures: Brain Processes incoming stimuli from sensory neurons and organs Sends outgoing stimuli to muscles to cause movement or tissues to cause release of chemicals Protected by the skull Spinal Cord Highway for nerve impulses to/from the brain Protected by vertebrae Peripheral nerves Carry impulses to/from the brain

6 Integumentary System Function: Serves as a barrier against infection and injury; helps to regulate body temperature; provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun Structures: hair, nails, sweat and oil glands Skin Holds together the body Creates a barrier against germs, UV radiation, and other harmful agents of the external environment Creates a barrier to water loss Helps regulate body temperature

7 Skeletal System Function: Supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement; stores mineral reserves; provides a site for blood cell formation Structures: Bones Form and shape the body Protect organs Enable movement (muscles pull them) Cartilage A type of bone that is flexible Ligaments Connect bone to bone Tendons Connect bone to muscle

8 Skeletal System Can you find the following bones in your body?

9 Muscular System Function: Works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement; helps to circulate blood and move food through the digestive system Structures: Skeletal muscle Connects to bone, enables movement via contraction which pulls on bone Smooth muscle Forms organs that squeeze (ex: stomach) Involuntary movement Cardiac muscle Makes up heart Regular beats due to pacemaker

10 Circulatory System Function: Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; helps to regulate body temperature Structures: Heart Muscle that squeezes blood around the body via the blood vessels Two halves: one half pumps deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs to pick up oxygen and release CO2; the other half pumps oxygenated blood coming from the lungs to the body Blood Transport system for dissolved gasses (oxygen, CO2), nutrients, waste, immune cells

11 Circulatory System Function: Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; helps to regulate body temperature Structures: Blood vessels Tubes that blood travels through Arteries – carry blood away from the heart (oxygenated if going to the body, deoxygenated if going to the lungs) Veins – carry blood towards the heart (oxygenated if coming from the lungs, deoxygenated if coming from the body) Capillaries – microscopic vessels that connect arteries and veins (where oxygen leaves blood and CO2 enters the blood)

12 Respiratory System Function: Provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body Structures: Lungs Nose, pharynx, larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles

13 Digestive System Function: Converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food; eliminates wastes Structures: Mouth, pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine (Colon) Rectum

14 Excretory System Function: Eliminates waste products from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis Structures: Skin Lungs Kidneys Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra

15 Endocrine System Function: Controls growth, development and metabolism; maintains homeostasis Structures: Glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals) Hypothalamus, Pancreas Ovaries (in females) Testes (in males)

16 Reproductive System Function: Produces reproductive cells; in females, nurtures and protects developing embryo Structures: Testes,epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, and penis (in males) Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina (in females)

17 Lymphatic/Immune System
Function: Helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circulatory system Structures: White blood cells Thymus, Spleen Lymph nodes and lymph vessels

18 Our organs are made out of four different types of tissue, and each tissue is made out of groups of different types of cells all working together. Connective Tissue gives shape to organs and holds them together. It is made out of cells like bone and cartilage. Nervous Tissue transmits messages throughout your body so that you are aware of what is going on around you and so you can respond to your environment. It includes various types of nerve cells. Muscle Tissue enables you to move by contracting to pull on bones or tighten organs. It includes three different types of muscle cells. Epithelial tissue helps to protect you from germs, injury, and fluid loss by forming layers that cover organ surfaces such as the surface of the skin, the airways, the reproductive tract, and the inner lining of the digestive tract.

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