2What is an Organism?An organism is a living thing. It is easy to recognise a living thing, but not so easy to define it. Animals and plants are organisms, obviously. Organisms are a biotic, or living, part of the environment. Rocks and sunshine are parts of the non-living environment abiotic.
3Know the difference between Quark: Simply energy. Can’t be seen under any microscope. Atom: Made from quarks. Has protons, neutrons. These make molecules. Molecule: These are made from Atoms. Examples of molecules are: Hydrogen, Oxygen. Organelle: Made of molecules and are the small organs in each cell. Examples in animal cells are: Nucleus, Ribosome, Lysosome. Cell: Made up of organelles. Cells are the building blocks of life. Tissue: Made from similar cells. Each organ has specific types of cells that make that particular organ and its parts. Organ: Similar types of tissue (example muscle tissue, heart tissue) makeup an organ. Organ System: Organs that work together to help an organism execute a specific function (breathing, thinking, etc) are part of an organ system. Organism: An organism is the person/thing.
4NucleusThe nucleus is the large control centre of a cell, directing all of the cell's activities.Chromosomes that contain your DNA are stored in this organelle.The nucleus is separated from the rest of the cell by the nuclear membrane.
5Ribosome Found on the endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm. Proteins are made in this organelle.
6MitochondriaThe mitochondria is sometimes referred to as the powerhouse of the cell.Mitochondria are largely responsible for providing the cell with energy from glucose (sugar) through a process called cellular respiration.
7Golgi BodiesGolgi bodies collect and process materials to be removed from the cell.They also make and secrete mucus.Cells that secrete a lot of mucus, such as cells lining the intestine, have many Golgi bodies.
8Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum is a three-dimensional network of branching tubes and pockets.It extends throughout the cytoplasm from the nuclear membrane.These fluid-filled tubes transport materials, such as proteins, through the cell.
9ChloroplastLooks like: green stacks of membranes that contain chlorophyllJob: perform photosynthesis (convert sunlight into energy)9
10Vacuole Looks like: sac-like organ. HUGE in plant cells Job: stores water, food, and waste10
11Vesicles A vesicle can be seen as a bubble of liquid within a cell. It is a small membrane-enclosed sack that can store or transport material.
12Cell Membrane Looks like: layered membrane surrounding the cell but inside of the cell wallJob: “the regulator”-controls what comes in and out of the cell, protects, and supports the cell12
13Cell Wall Looks like: thick layer outside the plasma membrane Job: structure and support13
21Mitosis Phase 1:Prophase DNA compacts into visible form as chromosomesEach chromosome contains two strands called sister chromatids.Sister chromatids are held together by a centromereThe nuclear membrane breaks down
22Mitosis Phase 2: Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
23Mitosis Phase 3: Anaphase The centromere splits and sister chromatids separate.They are now called daughter chromosomes.They move to opposite ends of the cell, pulled by spindle fibres
24Mitosis Phase 4: Telophase Final phase of mitosis.Chromosomes stretch out and are no longer visible.A new nuclear membrane forms around each group of daughter chromosomes.
25Stage 3: Cell Division - Cytokinesis Final stage of cell division and cell cycleThe cytoplasm divides and two genetically identical cells are formed. In a plant cell, a plate develops into a new cell wallIn an animal cell, the cell membrane is pinched off in the centre
26Plant vs Animal (Cytokinesis) In a plant cell, a plate develops into a new cell wallIn an animal cell, the cell membrane is pinched off in the centre forming two membranes,
271. Plant cells have a cell wall, Animal Cells do not Plant vs. Animal CellsThere are three main differences between plant and animal cells:1. Plant cells have a cell wall, Animal Cells do not27
282. Plant cells have chloroplasts and Animal Cells do not Plant vs. Animal Cells2. Plant cells have chloroplasts and Animal Cells do not28
293. Plant cells have larger vacuoles (storage spaces) Plant vs. Animal Cells3. Plant cells have larger vacuoles (storage spaces)29
30Plant vs. Animal Cells Plant Cells Chloroplasts Cell wall Large vacuoleAnimal CellsNo ChloroplastsNo Cell wallSmall Vacuole30
31Plant vs. Animal CellsDifferent Shapes (Plants are rectangles, and Animals are round)31
32Stages of Pregnancy and Development FertilizationEmbryonic development - CleavageFetal - DifferentiationGrowth – DevelopmentChildbirth
33Fertilization The egg is viable for 12 to 24 hours after ovulation Sperm are viable for 12 to 48 hours after ejaculationSperm cells must make their way to the uterine tube for fertilization to be possible
34ZYGOTEThe sperm and egg join to form a zygote: the first cell of a new individual.Zygote results of the fusion of DNA from sperm and egg2. Fertilization occurs in the Fallopian Tubes3. The zygote begins rapid mitotic cell division4. Beginning of human development
35Differentiation EMBRYO 0.5 cms20 days after fertilizationEmbryo begins to form organs during the third week.Cannot tell if it is human or other vertebrate. Tall visible.
36Differentiation Ears, nose and eyes not visible EMBRYO1 months0.6 cmsEars, nose and eyes not visibleSmall arm and leg buds, backbone seenHeart beats.
37DifferentiationDuring the second month most of the major organ systems form, limb buds develop.Limbs distinct with fingers and toes bones begin to form, eyes far apart.The embryo becomes a fetus by the seventh week.FETUS2 months3 cms
38DifferentiationAll organ systems are formed by the end of the eighth weekActivities of the fetus are growth and organ specializationA stage of tremendous growth and change in appearanceFetus at nine weeks3 cm
39DifferentiationBeginning the eighth week, the sexually neutral fetus activates gene pathways for sex determination, forming testes in XY fetuses and ovaries in XX fetuses.External genitalia develop.FETUS2 months3 cms
41Four Basic Kinds of Tissues Epithelial TissueConnective TissueMuscle TissueNervous Tissue
42Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue Locations: Covers the bodyLines the cavities, tubes, ducts and blood vessels inside the bodyCovers the organs inside body cavitiesEpithelial Tissue Functions:Protection from physical & chemical injury,Protection against microbial invasion,Examples: Skin, small intestine
43Connective Tissue Connective Tissue: Most abundant & widely distributed tissueConnective Tissue Functions:Connects, binds and supports structures,Tendons, ligaments, etc.Protects & cushions organs and tissues,Insulates (fat) andTransports substances (blood).Example: Bone and Blood.
44Muscle Tissue Muscle Tissue: Associated with the bones of the skeleton, the heart and in the walls of the hollow organs of the body.Muscle Tissue Functions:MovementLocomotionMaintains postureProduces heatFacial expressionsPumps bloodPeristalsisExample: arm, stomach, heart
45Nervous Tissue There are three types of neurons, sensory neurons Main component of the nervous system,ie., brain, spinal cord & nerves.Nervous Tissue Functions:Regulates & controls body functionsGenerates & transmits nerve impulsesSupports, insulates and protects impulse generating neurons.There are three types of neurons, sensory neuronsmotor neurons. connector neurons
46Cell SpecializationAll cells carry the same DNA information but they do not perform the same functions and may not look the same.All cells start their lives as identical cells called stem cells.The process of a cell becoming a particular type of cell is called cell differentiation.
47Groups of cells that function together and are specialized for common tasks are called tissues. In simple terms, they are groups of cells that work together to do the same job
49Levels of Organization Remember, the human body is organized in several levels, from the simplest to the most complex. . .Cells – the basic unit of lifeTissues – clusters of cells performing a similar functionOrgans – made of tissues that perform one specific functionOrgan Systems – groups of organs that perform a specific purpose in the human body***The purpose of the 11 organ systems is for the human body to maintain homeostasis.49
50HomeostasisHomeostasis is: The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
51The 11 Human Body Systems The 11 human body systems are as follows: -- nervous system -- integumentary system-- respiratory system -- digestive system-- excretory system -- skeletal system-- muscular system -- circulatory system-- endocrine system -- reproductive system-- lymphatic (immune) system51
52The Digestive SystemPurpose: to convert food particles into simpler micromolecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used by the bodyMajor Organs and their Functions:Mouth – to chew and grind up food-- saliva also begins the chemical breakdownEsophagus – pipe connecting mouth to stomachStomach – secretes an extraordinarily strong acid (pH = 2) that leads to breakdown of food-- once the food is broken down in the stomach and mixed with digestive juices, it is called chyme52
53-- also help neutralize stomach acid Pancreas – produces the hormone insulin that regulates blood sugar levels-- also help neutralize stomach acidLiver – produces bile, which breaks down fats in foodsGallbladder – pouch-like organ that stores bile for future useSmall Intestine – after digestion is complete, the chyme enters the small intestine where it is absorbed into the bloodstream-- the chyme is propelled along by folded surfaces called villi, on the intestineLarge Intestine – removes water from the chyme and gets the waste ready for excretion53
55The Respiratory System Purpose: to provide the body with a fresh supply of oxygen for cellular respiration and remove the waste product carbon dioxideMajor Organs and Their FunctionsNose – internal entry and exit point for airPharynx – serves as a passage way for both air and food at the back of the throatLarynx – your “voicebox”, as air passes over your vocal chords, you speakTrachea – the “windpipe”, or what connects your pharynx to your lungs-- a piece of skin, called the epiglottis, covers the trachea when you swallow, preventing food from entering55
56-- the bronchi are further subdivided into bronchioles Bronchi – the two large passageways that lead from the trachea to your lungs (one for each lung)-- the bronchi are further subdivided into bronchioles-- eventually, the further subdivisions lead to tiny air sacs called alveoli-- alveoli are in clusters, like grapes-- capillaries surrounding each alveolus is where the exchange of gases with the blood occursThe diaphragm is the muscle that causes you to breath-- hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm56
58The Circulatory System Purpose: to deliver oxygenated blood to the various cells and organ systems in your body so they can undergo cellular respirationMajor Organs and Their FunctionsHeart – the major muscle of the circulatory system-- pumps blood through its four chambers (two ventricles and two atria)-- pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs, where it gets oxygenated, returned to the heart, and then pumped out through the aorta to the rest of the body-- valve regulate the flow of blood between the chambers58
59Capillaries – small blood vessels where gas exchange occurs Arteries – carry blood away from the heart and to the major organs of the bodyVeins – carry blood back to the heart away from the major organs of the bodyCapillaries – small blood vessels where gas exchange occursBlood – the cells that flow through the circulatory system-- red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen-- white blood cells function in the immune system-- platelets help in blood clottingSpleen – helps to filter out toxins in the blood59
61THE HUMAN HEART The human heart consists of 4 chambers there are two types of chambers: the atrium and the ventriclethere are two of each type in the heartthe heart weighs a mere 300 grams-the heart weighs 300 grams-it's about the size of a fist-it has 2 atria-it has 2 ventricles-the walls of the ventricles are seperated by theinterventricular septum
62HEART VALVESThe human heart contains valves which prevent blood from flowing back into the heart chambers after it has contractedatrioventricular valves are found between the atrium and ventricle of each side of the heartsemilunar valves are found in the arteries leaving the heart to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles
63HEART AT WORK Each minute of the day the heart pumps 5 litres of blood each time the heart beats it sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the body
64THE HEART TO THE LUNGSBlood enters the right atrium of the heart via two large veins: the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cavablood exits the right ventricle of the heart through the pulmonary artery to the lungs
66THE HEART TO THE BODY (Circulatory and Respiratory) Blood reenters the left artrium of the heart via the pulmonary veinblood on the left side of the heart is oxygenated and is pumped into the body by the left ventricle through the aorta
67What is cancer?Caner is defined as the continuous uncontrolled growth of cells.A tumor is a any abnormal proliferation of cells.Benign tumors stays confined to its original locationMalignant tumors are capable of invading surrounding tissue or invading the entire bodyTumors are classified as to their cell typeTumors can arise from any cell type in the body
68What is Melanoma? A type of skin cancer Some risk factors include: Sun exposure -depleting ozone layerPresence of many or unusual molesSkin typesGenetics predispositionNonetheless there are risks factors that highly attributed to its incidence. Some of the them are:amount of sun exposure – the more cumulative exposure the higherpresence of many of unusual mole – people with many moles in the bodyFitzpatrick’s Skin Type I and II have higher risk –1975 Thomas Fitzpatrick, Harvard skin typing system based on skin complexion and response to sun exposuregenetic predisposition – if there history of melanoma that runs in the familyAccording to a study ,compared to general population, people who with 2 risk factors have 3.5 times risk of developing MM and 20 times those who have 3 or more risk factors.68
70E= evolution/elevation What to sayABCDE system is the tool for detecting melanoma. This is a list of criteria that can be used for distinguishing between benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions.A- if you draw a line across the center of MM, you’ll see that is not symmetric compared to regular moleB- the border is uneven or ragged is a sign of melanomaC-if there are multiple shades of pigment is presenceD- diameter > 6mmDermatologist adds E for either evolution if lesion changes upon observation or E for elevation.Suspicious lesion is followed by histological confirmation.70
72DiagnosisThe interdependence of our organ systems can sometimes make it difficult to pinpoint the source of a medical problem.Doctors are trained to look for symptoms that are characteristic of specific problems.
73DiagnosisThe interdependence of our organ systems can sometimes make it difficult to pinpoint the source of a medical problem.Doctors are trained to look for symptoms that are characteristic of specific problems (e.g. swollen lymph nodes are a symptom of infection).
74Tools of the TradeTo collect information about what’s going on inside the body, doctors may use devices like the stethoscope (to listen to the heart and lungs)
75Tools of the TradeTo collect information about what’s going on inside the body, doctors may use devices like the stethoscope (to listen to the heart and lungs) and a sphygmomanometer (to measure blood pressure).
76Tests of the TradeDoctors may also order tests of material collected from the body (such as blood and urine) which may be analyzed by a separate lab.E.g. Blood may be tested to determine the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, sugar, and hormones – the chemicals that carry messages through the body to regulate the functioning of organs.
77Medical Imaging Technologies Diagnostic imaging tests can provide doctors with even more information: an actual visual picture of the structure and functioning of organs.However, these technologies are often expensive, and the effectiveness of each technology is limited by its properties.
78EndoscopyAn endoscope is a thin, flexible tube that has a bright light and a video camera that can be used to image the digestive tract, as in a colonoscopy.
79EndoscopyAn endoscope is a thin, flexible tube that has a bright light and a video camera that can be used to image the digestive tract, as in a colonoscopy.
80ThermographyIn thermograms, infrared light cameras are used to diagnose problems with circulation.Normal Raynaud’s syndrome
81X-RaysX-rays are high-energy electromagnetic radiation that can easily penetrate soft tissues but cannot easily penetrate bone.
82X-RaysX-rays are used to check for cancers (e.g. mammograms), to diagnose problems in the circulatory and respiratory systems, and to check for broken bones.They are quick, painless, and non-invasive but exposure to x-rays can damage cells and increases cancer risk.
83Body ScannersNote that this is also true for the body scanners that are used at airports, especially the new “naked body scanners.”
84Body ScannersSince the radiation emitted by these body scanners is absorbed at the level of the skin, it is your skin cancer risk that is most increased – and the scans cannot find anything concealed in any body cavity.
85Body ScannersSince the radiation emitted by these body scanners is absorbed at the level of the skin, it is your skin cancer risk that is most increased – and the scans cannot find anything concealed in any body cavity.Also, like most x-rays, they do not show contrast that may be used to identify soft materials (like plastics and chemical explosives).
86Body ScannersSince the radiation emitted by these body scanners is absorbed at the level of the skin, it is your skin cancer risk that is most increased – and the scans cannot find anything concealed in any body cavity.Also, like most x-rays, they do not show contrast that may be used to identify soft materials (like plastics and chemical explosives).In other words, they’re completely ineffective.
87Computed TomographyComputed tomography (CT) scans, also called computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans, use x-rays to produce images at different angles through the body so that a 3D image can be constructed.
88Computed TomographyCT scans may be used to diagnose cancers, skeletal abnormalities and vascular diseases (affecting blood vessels).But since CT scans use x-rays, they also increase your cancer risk.
89FluoroscopyFluoroscopy is a technique in which a continuous beam of x-rays is used to produce moving images.It is used to show movement in the digestive system (which may require ingestion of a high-contrast liquid such as barium) and the circulatory system (angiograms).
90UltrasoundUltrasound is high-frequency sound waves produced by a device called a transducer that are reflected back to the transducer by internal body structures.
91UltrasoundUltrasound is high-frequency sound waves produced by a device called a transducer that are reflected back to the transducer by internal body structures.
92UltrasoundUltrasound is used to study soft tissues and organs, especially the heart (echocardiograms) and especially during pregnancy.Because the presence of gas can distort images, ultrasound is not often used for imaging the respiratory or digestive systems.
93Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a technique that uses strong magnets and radio waves that interact with the hydrogen atoms in your body (esp. in water). A computer is used to construct an image from the signal received from the atoms.
94Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) MRI is used to image the structure and function of the brain, heart, soft tissue, and the inside of bones; to diagnose cancers, brain diseases, and problems with the circulatory system.But it is also extremely expensive and the availability of machines/technicians is limited.
95Positron Emission Tomography (PET) PET scans are a type of nuclear medicine is which a patient is given a radioisotope that emits positron radiation; the radioisotope is attached to a chemical absorbed by certain tissues or organs.It is used to detect cancers,heart disease,and some brain disorders(such as Alzheimer’s).