Presentation on theme: "SNC 2P Biology Review. Diffusion Fill in the missing words: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of ___________ concentration to an area."— Presentation transcript:
SNC 2P Biology Review
Diffusion Fill in the missing words: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of ___________ concentration to an area of __________ concentration
Osmosis Osmosis is the movement of ____________ molecules across a ______________
Osmosis In which direction will water move (into the cell or out of the cell) in the example below?
Cells 1.Why do cells need to remain small? 2.State three reasons why cells need to divide
Cell division State the stages of the cell cycle Circle the two stages that are the division stage Star the stage that is just about division of the genetic material
Answers: High, low Water, semi-permeable membrane Into the cell Small cells are more efficient at moving materials into and out of the cell because diffusion happens at a constant rate Repair/maintain, growth, reproduce Interphase, mitosis*, cytokinesis
Mitosis Match each figure with either: – Prophase, metaphase, anaphase or telophase
Cancer 1.What is a mutation? 2.Which of these types of tumour is more dangerous? – Benign or malignant 3.Give two reasons why that type is more dangerous
Answers: A – telophase, B- prophase, C- anaphase, D- metaphase A change in the genetic code (or DNA) Malignant They invade other cells and they spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)
Cell Specialization 1.What type of cell do all cells start out as? 2.Why do cells in multicellular organisms (like humans) need different kinds of cells? 3.What happens to cell when it specializes? 4.What is the name of this process?
Types of cells Identify each of the following types of cells:
Types of tissues 1.Fill in the blanks: – Cells specialize and work together to form ____ – Tissues work together in ______ to perform a common task – Organs work together in ____ ____ to perform a common task 2.State the 4 types of tissues
Answers Stem cells Because there are many kinds of jobs to perform They change size and shape Cell differentiation A- muscle, B-nerve, C-skin, D-bone, E-blood Tissues, organs, organ systems Muscle, epithelial, connective, nervous
Identify the organ that: Moves blood through the body Exchanges gases Cleans and filters the blood Cleans the blood, stores substances such as glycogen, vitamins and minerals Churns and digests food Absorbs nutrients into the body
Match the organ system Transports blood, nutrients, gases and wastes Takes in and breaks down food Controls breathing Removes liquid wastes from the body Moves body parts and organs Provides structural support Gathers and interprets sensory information Defends against disease Includes skin, hair, nails and provides a protective barrier
Respiration Match the labels to the structures or fill in the blanks: Work bank: alveoli, capillaries, bronchus, bronchioles, diaphragm, epiglottis, larynx, lung, nasal cavity, pharynx, poor, rich, trachea
Respiration 1.Explain what happens in gas exchange 2.Why is blood ‘oxygen poor’ when it arrives at the lungs? Or why do we need oxygen?
Answers A – capillaries B – alveoli C – poor D – rich E – nasal cavity F – pharynx G – epiglottis H – larynx I – trachea J – bronchus K – lung L – bronchioles M – diaphragm Oxygen moves into the lungs/alveoli, diffuses into the capillaries then diffuses into body cells while carbon dioxide goes from body cells through the blood to the lungs to be exhaled For cellular respiration- so body cells can make energy using glucose and oxygen
Circulation Identify structures A - E: Use the numbers to explain what happens to blood as it flows through the heart/lungs/body
Answers A- artery, B-vein, C-valve, D- capillaries, E- heart 10 –oxygen poor blood arrives at the heart and enters at 11 (right atrium) then goes to 1 (right ventricle) and is pumped out through 2 to the lungs (3) where gas exchange occurs Oxygen rich blood comes from 3 (lungs) to 4 (left atrium) then 5 (left ventricle) where it is pumped through 6 (the aorta) to the body
Digestion Identify the parts labeled below:
Digestion 1.State the 4 processes of digestion 2.Explain the difference between physical and mechanical digestion 3.What happens during absorption?
Answers A- mouth, B-esophagus, C-stomach, D-liver, E-pancreas, F- large intestine, G- small intestine, H – rectum Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination Physical – breaking food down into smaller pieces – Chewing, churning Chemical digestion uses chemicals (enzymes) to break food down for absorption – Saliva, gastric (stomach) fluids The diffusion of food from the small intestine into the blood to travel to each cell of the body
Cellular Respiration 1.Write the word equation for cellular respiration – glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy 2.Explain how glucose and oxygen enter the body and reach each cell 3.Explain how carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body
Answers Oxygen enters through the respiratory system (lungs/alveoli) and diffuses into the circulatory system (capillaries) where it is carried to every cell (and diffuses into the cells) Glucose is absorbed from the digestive system and enters the circulatory system (capillaries) where it is carried to every body cell (and diffuses into the cells) Carbon dioxide is a waste that diffuses from body cells into the circulatory system (capillaries) and is carried to the alveoli where it diffuses into the respiratory system and is exhaled
Organelles Organelle: – Cell wall – Cell membrane – Cytoplasm – Nucleus – Mitochondrion – Chloroplast – Vacuole – Endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi apparatus – Vesicle – Ribosomes Function – A - transportation network – B - structural support – C - control centre, where the DNA is – D -creates energy from food – E- stores food water or wastes – F- controls what enters/exits – G -packages material for shipment – H -supports organelles, where chemical reactions happen – I -manufactures proteins – J -creates food from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide – K -membrane bound structure that carries materials into/out of cell
Answers – Cell wall -B – Cell membrane - F – Cytoplasm - H – Nucleus - C – Mitochondrion - D – Chloroplast -J – Vacuole - E – Endoplasmic reticulum - A – Golgi apparatus - G – Vesicle - K – Ribosomes - I
Animal cell Label the parts of the cell:
Plant cell Label the parts of the cell:
Answers Animal cell A – ribosome B – nucleus C – endoplasmic reticulum D – cytoplasm E – vacuole F – Golgi apparatus G – cell membrane H – vesicle I – cytoskeleton J – mitochondrion Plant cell A – cytoskeleton B – chloroplast C – vacuole D – vesicle E – nucleus F – ribosome G – endoplasmic reticulum H – cell membrane I – cell wall J – cytoplasm K – Golgi apparatus L – mitochondrion