2Diffusion Fill in the missing words: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of ___________ concentration to an area of __________ concentration
3OsmosisOsmosis is the movement of ____________ molecules across a ______________
4OsmosisIn which direction will water move (into the cell or out of the cell) in the example below?
5Cells Why do cells need to remain small? State three reasons why cells need to divide
6Cell division State the stages of the cell cycle Circle the two stages that are the division stageStar the stage that is just about division of the genetic material
7Answers: High, low Water, semi-permeable membrane Into the cell Small cells are more efficient at moving materials into and out of the cell because diffusion happens at a constant rateRepair/maintain, growth, reproduceInterphase, mitosis*, cytokinesis
8Mitosis Match each figure with either: Prophase, metaphase, anaphase or telophase
9Cancer What is a mutation? Which of these types of tumour is more dangerous?Benign or malignantGive two reasons why that type is more dangerous
10Answers: A – telophase, B- prophase, C- anaphase, D-metaphase A change in the genetic code (or DNA)MalignantThey invade other cells and they spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)
11Cell Specialization What type of cell do all cells start out as? Why do cells in multicellular organisms (like humans) need different kinds of cells?What happens to cell when it specializes?What is the name of this process?
12Types of cellsIdentify each of the following types of cells:
13Types of tissues Fill in the blanks: State the 4 types of tissues Cells specialize and work together to form ____Tissues work together in ______ to perform a common taskOrgans work together in ____ ____ to perform a common taskState the 4 types of tissues
14Answers Stem cells Because there are many kinds of jobs to perform They change size and shapeCell differentiationA- muscle, B-nerve, C-skin, D-bone, E-bloodTissues, organs, organ systemsMuscle, epithelial, connective, nervous
15Identify the organ that: Moves blood through the bodyExchanges gasesCleans and filters the bloodCleans the blood, stores substances such as glycogen, vitamins and mineralsChurns and digests foodAbsorbs nutrients into the body
16Match the organ system Transports blood, nutrients, gases and wastes Takes in and breaks down foodControls breathingRemoves liquid wastes from the bodyMoves body parts and organsProvides structural supportGathers and interprets sensory informationDefends against diseaseIncludes skin, hair, nails and provides a protective barrier
18Respiration Match the labels to the structures or fill in the blanks: Work bank: alveoli, capillaries, bronchus, bronchioles, diaphragm, epiglottis, larynx, lung, nasal cavity, pharynx, poor, rich, trachea
19Respiration Explain what happens in gas exchange Why is blood ‘oxygen poor’ when it arrives at the lungs? Or why do we need oxygen?
20Answers A – capillaries B – alveoli C – poor D – rich E – nasal cavity F – pharynxG – epiglottisH – larynxI – tracheaJ – bronchusK – lungL – bronchiolesM – diaphragmOxygen moves into the lungs/alveoli, diffuses into the capillaries then diffuses into body cells while carbon dioxide goes from body cells through the blood to the lungs to be exhaledFor cellular respiration- so body cells can make energy using glucose and oxygen
21Circulation Identify structures A - E: Use the numbers to explain what happens to blood as it flows through the heart/lungs/body
22Answers A- artery, B-vein, C-valve, D- capillaries, E- heart 10 –oxygen poor blood arrives at the heart and enters at 11 (right atrium) then goes to 1 (right ventricle) and is pumped out through 2 to the lungs (3) where gas exchange occursOxygen rich blood comes from 3 (lungs) to 4 (left atrium) then 5 (left ventricle) where it is pumped through 6 (the aorta) to the body
24Digestion State the 4 processes of digestion Explain the difference between physical and mechanical digestionWhat happens during absorption?
25AnswersA- mouth, B-esophagus, C-stomach, D-liver, E-pancreas, F- large intestine, G- small intestine, H – rectumIngestion, digestion, absorption, eliminationPhysical – breaking food down into smaller piecesChewing, churningChemical digestion uses chemicals (enzymes) to break food down for absorptionSaliva, gastric (stomach) fluidsThe diffusion of food from the small intestine into the blood to travel to each cell of the body
26Cellular Respiration Write the word equation for cellular respiration glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energyExplain how glucose and oxygen enter the body and reach each cellExplain how carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body
27AnswersOxygen enters through the respiratory system (lungs/alveoli) and diffuses into the circulatory system (capillaries) where it is carried to every cell (and diffuses into the cells)Glucose is absorbed from the digestive system and enters the circulatory system (capillaries) where it is carried to every body cell (and diffuses into the cells)Carbon dioxide is a waste that diffuses from body cells into the circulatory system (capillaries) and is carried to the alveoli where it diffuses into the respiratory system and is exhaled
28Organelles Organelle: Function Cell wall Cell membrane Cytoplasm NucleusMitochondrionChloroplastVacuoleEndoplasmic reticulumGolgi apparatusVesicleRibosomesFunctionA - transportation networkB - structural supportC - control centre, where the DNA isD -creates energy from foodE- stores food water or wastesF- controls what enters/exitsG -packages material for shipmentH -supports organelles, where chemical reactions happenI -manufactures proteinsJ -creates food from sunlight, water and carbon dioxideK -membrane bound structure that carries materials into/out of cell
29Answers Cell wall -B Cell membrane - F Cytoplasm - H Nucleus - C Mitochondrion - DChloroplast -JVacuole - EEndoplasmic reticulum - AGolgi apparatus - GVesicle - KRibosomes - I