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Anatomy and Physiology

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology
The Human Body Anatomy and Physiology

2 Anatomy –structure Physiology –functions

3 Levels of Structural Organization

4 Chemical level Atoms Elements Compounds

5 Chemicals divided into two major
inorganic chemicals Ex: H2O, 02 and CO2 Organic chemicals Ex: Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

6 cells are the smallest living subunits of organisms
2. Cellular Level cells are the smallest living subunits of organisms many different types of cells Each made of chemicals and carries out specific chemical reactions.

7 3. Tissue Level A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function

8 4 different groups of tissue

9 1. Epithelial Covers or lines body surfaces
Examples: outer layer of the skin, line the various cavities and tubes of the body

10 2. Connective Connects and supports parts of the body; some transport or store materials Supporting cartilage. Example: the outer ear bone. Binding Tendons connect muscle to bone. Ligaments connects one bone to another

11 3. Muscle Specialized for contraction, which bring about movement
3 Types of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle - contraction provides the force of locomotion and other voluntary body movements. Smooth muscle lines the walls of the hollow structures of the body, such as the intestine, urinary bladder, uterus, and blood vessels. Its contraction, which is involuntary, reduces the size of these hollow organs. cardiac muscle – makes up the heart

12 4. Nerve Specialized to generate and transmit impulses that regulate body functions Examples: the brain and optic nerves

13 4. Organ Level An organ is a group of two or more different types of tissues that has a specific function Examples: heart, brain, kidneys, liver, lungs

14 5. Organ Systems An organ system is a group of organs that contribute to a particular function.

15 Integumentary System The skin and structures derived from it, such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands. Protects the body, helps regulate body temperature, pressure and pain.

16 Skeletal System Made up of bones and ligaments Supports, protects provides framework

17 Muscular System Specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue and tendons Brings about movement, maintaining posture and produces heat

18 Circulatory System The heart, blood, and blood vessels Transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes waste

19 Lymphatic System The lymph, lymphatic vessels, and structures containing lymph tissue (spleen and lymph nodes) Cleans and returns tissue fluid to the blood and destroys pathogens that enter the body

20 Nervous System The brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs, such as the eye and ear Interprets sensory information, regulates body functions such as movement by means of impulses

21 Endocrine System All hormone producing glands and cells such as the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, and pancreas Regulates body functions by means of hormones

22 Respiratory System The lungs and a series of passageways, such as the pharynx(throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood

23 Digestive System Gastrointestinal tract (GI) and organs such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and the pancreas Breaks down and absorbs food for use by cells and eliminates solid and other waste

24 Excretory System (Urinary System)
The kidneys, urinary bladder, and urethra Remove waste products from the blood and regulates volume and pH of blood

25 Immune System Consists of several organs, includes the lymph nodes, spleen, blood vessels, bone marrow as well as white blood cells (WBC) Provides protection against infection and disease

26 Reproductive System Ovaries, uterus, mammary glands (woman) Testes (men) Produces eggs and sperm In women, provides a site for the developing embryo-fetus


28 All of the body systems function together to help the body maintain homeostasis.

29 Homeostasis reflects the ability of the body to maintain relative stability and to function normally despite constant changes. Changes may be external or internal, and the body must respond

30 Homeostasis mechanisms work like a thermostat that is sensitive to temperature and maintains a relative constant room temperature whether the room gets hot or cold.

31 Homeostasis (animation) http://health. howstuffworks. com/adam-200092

32 BODY CAVITIES Many  organs and organ systems in the human body are housed in compartments called body cavities. These cavities protect delicate internal organs

33 The human body has 4 main body cavities

34 1. Cranial cavity- encases the brain.

35 2. Spinal cavity - extending from the cranial cavity to the base of the spine, surrounds the Spinal Cord

36 3. Thoracic cavity - The upper compartment, contains the heart, the esophagus, and the organs of the respiratory system - the lungs, trachea, and bronchi.

37 4. Abdominal cavity - The lower compartment, contains organs of the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems.

38 The abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity are separated by a wall of muscle called the diaphragm.

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