Presentation on theme: "What’s in a Name?. Panem et Circenses Panem is the setting of The Hunger Games, run by a single-party dictatorship led by President Snow. The NAME Panem."— Presentation transcript:
What’s in a Name?
Panem et Circenses
Panem is the setting of The Hunger Games, run by a single-party dictatorship led by President Snow. The NAME Panem comes from the Latin phrase panem et circenses, which literally translates into “bread and circuses” or “bread and games”. The phrase itself describes entertainment used to distract public attention from more important matters. By the government providing ample food and entertainment, the citizens would give up their political rights. "Bread and Circuses" is a metaphor for a superficial means of making the people “fat and happy”. It was the basic Roman formula for keeping the population content and politically ignorant. This formula offered a variety of pleasures including the distribution of food, public baths, gladiators, exotic animals, chariot races, sports competitions, and theater representation. It was an efficient instrument in the hands of the Emperors to keep the population peaceful, and at the same time giving them the opportunity to voice themselves in these places of performance.
THE ARENA… THE COLISEUM…
Caesar Flickerman is the host for the Hunger Games. He is famous for turning any conversation around for the positive, and is known to change the color of his lips, hair, and eyelids for each Hunger Games.Hunger Games
Julius Caesar(July 100 BC– 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.Roman generalstatesmanLatin Roman RepublicRoman Empire Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.conquest of GaulEnglish ChannelRhinebridge across the Rhineinvasion of Britain
Cinna was Katniss Everdeen's stylist during her campaigns through the 74th and 75th Hunger Games. He came from the Capitol and was different in both looks and demeanor to her Prep team who, to Katniss, were like "a trio of oddly colored birds pecking around her feet." Cinna, as it seemed to Katniss, was more normal than she had expected. He was also a rebel from the start, which Katniss was unaware of. Cinna is outgoing, with both his personality, and his designs.Katniss Everdeenstylist74th75th Hunger Games CapitolPrep team
Cinna: There are two guys from ancient Rome named "Cinna" who are closely tied to Julius Caesar. One was a politician involved in the assassination plot against Julius Caesar (whom many thought to be a tyrant). The other was a poet who was murdered following the assassination of Caesar, having been mistaken for the other Cinna. (BTW, both of these Cinnas appear in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.) So what might this say about Cinna the stylist? He's certainly an artist, kind of like Cinna the poet. Does his name indicate that he might also be a rebel, plotting against the oppressive Panem?Shakespeare's Julius Caesar
Portia is obviously a native of the Capitol due to her creative fashions she makes and the clothes she wears. Portia was a newer stylist since the newer ones get poorer districts. It is speculated she might've chosen District 12 for the district she works for. It is possible she rebelled against the Capitol, but it was never confirmed.the Capitol
Porcia Catonis, also known simply as Porcia was a Roman woman who lived in the 1st century BC. She was the daughter of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticencis and his first wife Atilia. She is best known for being the second wife of Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins, and for her suicide, reputedly by swallowing live coals.Roman Marcus Porcius Cato UticencisAtiliaMarcus Junius BrutusJulius Caesar'sassassinssuicide
Cato was the male tribute from District 2 in the 74th Hunger Games and one of the main antagonists of The Hunger Games due to being a Career Tribute. He is the leader of the Career alliance formed by tributes from Districts 1, 2, and 4. Like Katniss Everdeen he volunteered for the Games.tribute District 274th Hunger GamesThe Hunger GamesCareer Tributealliancetributes1 24Katniss Everdeen
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, commonly known as Cato the Younger to distinguish him from his great-grandfather, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic. A noted orator, he is remembered for his stubbornness and tenacity (especially in his lengthy conflict with Julius Caesar), as well as his immunity to bribes, his moral integrity, and his famous distaste for the corruption of the period. Roman RepublicJulius Caesar bribescorruption
Octavia was one of the members of Katniss' prep team, along with Flavius and Venia. They prepared her to be dressed by Cinna. Once he died, they helped Katniss dress up for her role as the mockingjay.FlaviusVeniamockingjay
Octavia the Younger was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus and fourth wife of Mark Antony. One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues.Roman Emperor AugustusMark Antony
Effie is short for Euphemia, meaning “well-spoken”. St. Euphemia was martyred for her defiance of Rome and her secret allegiance to the Christian faith. EFFIE… TRIBUTE… Tribute is from the Latin word tributum, meaning contribution. One party gives a tribute to another as a sign of respect, submission, or allegiance. Various ancient states exacted tribute from areas they had conquered or threatened to conquer.
Even today, in a world of skyscrapers, the Coliseum is hugely impressive. It stands as a glorious but troubling monument to Roman imperial power and cruelty. Inside it, behind those ranks of arches and columns, Romans cold-bloodedly killed thousands of people whom they saw as criminals, as well as professional fighters and animals.
A DAY AT THE ARENA: Gladiatorial games began with an elaborate procession. The parade and subsequent events were often accompanied by music; the mosaic depicts a water organ and the curved horn (cornu).The morning's events might begin with mock fights. These would be followed by animal displays, sometimes featuring trained animals that performed tricks, but more often staged as hunts in which increasingly exotic animals were pitted against each other or hunted and killed by bestiarii.
The lunch break was devoted to executions of criminals The public nature of the execution made it degrading as well as painful and was intended to serve as a deterrent to others. One form of execution in the arena was damnatio ad bestias, in which the condemned were cast into the arena with violent animals or were made to participate in “dramatic” reenactments of mythological tales in which the “stars” really died.damnatio ad bestias Criminals could also be forced to fight in the arena with no previous training; in such bouts death was a foregone conclusion, since the “victor” had to face further opponents until he died. In extraordinary circumstances, criminals might be forced to stage an elaborate naval battle. Although these were usually fought on lakes, some scholars think they might also have been staged in the Coliseum.
In the afternoon came the high point of the games— individual gladiatorial combats. These were usually matches between gladiators with different types of armor and fighting styles There were many rituals in the arena. When a gladiator had been wounded and wished to concede defeat, he would hold up an index finger. At this point the crowd would indicate with gestures whether they wished the defeated gladiator to be killed or spared. The popular belief is that “thumbs down” meant kill and “thumbs up” meant spare - the sponsor of the games decided whether or not to give the defeated gladiator a reprieve. If the gladiator was to be killed, he was expected to accept the final blow without crying out or flinching.