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From Republic to Empire

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1 From Republic to Empire
6th Grade UBD - Unit 7 - From Republic to Empire From Republic to Empire

2 Preview Rome Becomes an Empire- Julius Caesar’s defeat of Pompey led to the end of the Roman Republic and the founding of the Roman Empire. The Growth of the Empire- The Roman Empire grew quickly in its first 100 years. At last, it grew too large to be governed easily.

3 Reach Into Your Background
In ancient Rome a dictator was selected to rule the country in a time of war or other crisis and was expected to return power to the regular government once the crisis was over. What do you think of when you think of a dictator? ( 4 minutes)

4 Partner Activity Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

5 Key Ideas- Rome Becomes an Empire
Caesar was originally Pompey’s ally in the First Triumvirate. Caesar’s victory in Gaul gave him the political strength to defeat Pompey. Some members of the Roman Senate were worried about Caesar’s growing power. As a result, they assassinated him. Octavian, Caesar’s nephew, won the civil war that followed Caesar’s death. He became Augustus, the emperor.

6 From Republic to Empire
Rome’s transition from republic to empire had a great impact on its citizens. Under the republic, the Roman people had the ability to choose their own leaders and representatives.

7 Caesars Path to Power Video- Caesars Path to Power

8 Augustus Caesar Father of Rome
Reading Handout- Augustus Caesar Father of Rome

9 Key Term Julius Caesar- A Roman general and statesman. He was also a prolific writer. He laid the groundwork for the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire.

10 From Republic to Empire
With the rise of Julius Caesar and the creation of the Roman Empire, people lost their right to choose their leaders. The government was led by emperors whose power to rule was passed on through their family lines.

11 The Rise of Julius Caesar
The creation of the empire greatly limited citizens’ political rights, and this political system was marked by violence and disorder. However, it also led to many benefits, including expansion, wealth, and diversity.

12 Political and Military Success
Caesar was very ambitious. He served in the Roman military and was a skillful soldier. He also was a clever politician and a skilled writer and speaker.

13 Political and Military Success
In its early years, Rome was a republic guided by democratic political beliefs. After a series of successes in the Punic Wars, Rome grew larger and stronger. At that time it was ruled by a triumvirate, a group of three leaders.

14 Key Term Triumvirate- In ancient Rome a triumvirate was a ruling commission of three officials.

15 Political and Military Success
One of these leaders, Julius Caesar, used military successes to increase his power. He then defeated his main rival in the triumvirate, Pompey, and declared himself the sole ruler of Rome.

16 Political and Military Success
After Julius Caesar declared himself the sole ruler of Rome the government began the process by which it ceased to be a republic and became an empire.

17 Dictator for Life Caesar’s rise ushered in a time of great expansion and success as well as great turmoil. Roman territory began to grow tremendously, and many of Rome’s common people loved their new leader.

18 The Ides of March However, a group of senators, fearing Caesar’s unrestrained power, assassinated him. This act led to a lengthy and bloody civil war in Rome.

19 Key Term Ides of March- A day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March. It has became notorious as the date of the assassination of Julius Caesar.

20 Key Term Assassinate- To murder (an important person) in a surprise attack for political or religious reasons.

21 The Murder of Caesar Video- The Murder of Caesar

22 The New Emperor The civil war in Rome, finally ended with the ascension of Octavian as the emperor Augustus. Augustus and future emperors expanded the Roman Empire even farther and spread Roman influences across much of the world.

23 The First Emperor Video- The First Emperor

24 The Growth of the Empire
Although the Roman Empire flourished for many years, its political situation remained one of instability and violence.

25 Key Ideas- The Growth of the Empire
Rome’s place on the Mediterranean Sea and its warm climate made it easy to grow food. Conquered nations were absorbed into the Roman Empire. Cities were built to look like Rome, and the Roman culture was passed on to the new citizens. The empire was run in an orderly fashion. However, the transfer of the role of emperor involved many cruel acts.

26 Key Term Pax Romana- Latin for “Roman Peace.”

27 Pax Romana The Pax Romana brought an end to the inside fighting that had existed in Rome since the time of Caesar. During this period, Rome’s growth brought great riches and new ways of doing things to the empire and its people.

28 Roman Buildings Video- Roman Buildings

29 Roman Buildings There was a strong sense of similarity among Roman cities. They all were designed and built to look like one another. All Roman cities had a theater and temples set aside for different gods.

30 Roman Buildings They also had aqueducts to carry water through the city, and they all had public bathhouses. Buildings in even the most distant provinces were designed the same as those in Rome.

31 Key Term Aqueduct- An artificial waterway designed to carry water from one place to another. The word comes from the Latin aqua, meaning “water.”

32 The Growth of the Empire
Many people were happy to become a part of Rome. The Romans brought many advantages, including better architecture, education, and health.

33 The Growth of the Empire
A common language, calendar, religion, and form of money helped tie the Roman Empire together.

34 Portrait of an Empire Citizens anywhere in the Roman Empire also were treated the same way. They spoke Latin and used the same form of money. They also used the same calendar. It was called the Julian calendar. It was named after Julius Caesar, its creator. These details meant that all cities and all people in the empire were connected. This was even true of cities that Rome conquered and added to its growing empire.

35 Ancient Rome Reading Handout- Ancient Rome

36 Independent Activity What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)

37 Partner Activity Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

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