Presentation on theme: "The evolution of the Marxist theories through the history until the recent New Marxism MARXIST THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS."— Presentation transcript:
The evolution of the Marxist theories through the history until the recent New Marxism MARXIST THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Even though Marx was not widely read during his own time and Marxism, as a political system may be outdated, at least from the present perspective, Karl Marx remains an iconic figure of the 19 th century. Compared to realism and liberalism, his view of international relations is pretty unfamiliar as it rests upon the importance of the “structures” of a global capitalist system, and the resulting inequality. Marx’s theories have influenced not only the ideology of former and present communist countries, but also the international system as a whole. Moreover, his theories have had a deep impact on academic studies. INTRODUCTION
1.The core elements of Marxist theory in IR. Social world as a totality. Historical materialism. Base-Superstructure Scheme. Class struggle The cause of emancipation. 2. Marxism incorporated to international sphere. Imperialism. The Dependency School. The world-system theory. MARX’S IDEAS AND THE BEGINNING OF ITS INCORPORATION TO IR
Social world as a totality = knowledge of the others is a sine qua none condition to understand any social area. Historical materialism = the processes of the historical change reflect the economic development of the society. These two ideas imply that it exists a base-superstructure scheme in which a change of the mode of production of material life (economic base) necessarely leads to a change in the legal, political and cultural institutions (superstructure). Class conflict is an unevitable characteristic of society. Especially in the capitalist society = constant struggle between bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the prolétariat (workers). The cause of emancipation = Marx expects that the replacement of a previous order will lead to the emancipation of the society through social change. THE CORE ELEMENTS OF MARXIST THEORY.
Imperialism. 20th century, update of Marx’s theories about capitalism. Trotsky: the development of a state is combined (states need to develop in capitalist system of states) and uneven (some states always develop faster and better than others). Lenin: although he accepted much of Marx’s basic thesis, capitalism characteristics have changed. For Lenin, it is the final and highest stage of capitalism = monopoly capitalism = dominant core exploits the less developed periphery, which means the workers don’t share the same interests anymore. MARXISM INCORPORATED TO INTERNATIONAL SPHERE.
The Dependency School: Declining terms of trade = due to the increasing price of manufactured goods and because they rely on them, the peripheric countries tend to become poorer and poorer comparing to the core countries and tend to be dependent on the core. World-System theory: Wallerstein argue that all the institutions of the social world are continually being created and re-created. Therefore, any world system has necessarely a beginning and an end. Incorporate the notion of semi-periphery = intermediate between the core and the periphery. Is dominated by the core but stabilize the political structure of the world system. The three are linked together in an exploitive relationship.
1920s-1930s: roots of the Gramscianism and the Critical Theory. (Table) These two theories have been developed during the same period. However, they focus on different issues, present distinct ideas, and the ensued related approaches differ. A return to fundamentals with the New Marxism. HOW MARX’S IDEAS HAVE EVOLVED IN IR SINCE THE 1920S-1930S ?
GramscianismCritical Theory Focus onInternational political and economic issues of International Politics. Issues of the nternational society ethics and security. Main Ideas Concept of the hegemony = coercion + consent (Marx based it only on coercion) Definition of « Consent » Conclusion: hegemony allows dominant group tospread its moral, political and cultural values. Historic Bloc reinforce Marx’s base-superstructure scheme. Intellectual concerns = culture, bureaucracy, social concerns + concepts of reason and rationality. Frankfurt School : working class has been absorbed by the system (Mass Culture). Meaning of emancipation = in terms of reconciliaition with nature. Related Approaches Robert Cox and the analysis of « world order »: Any set of ideas and values must reflect a certain context. Pb=all theorist bring their own values on their analysis. Look closely ! CSS= Citical Security Studies.: States as part security problems, thus, individual should be the center of the analysis in the world. Support emancipation.
Based on a reappropriation of Marx’s concepts and ideas. Two writers: Justin Rosenberg criticize realists theories of IR and globalization by analysing the character of the international system and how it reacts to the change of social relations.He considers it is necessary to understand historical change in the world of politics. Benno Teschk brings a critique to the current International Relations theory + Presents the concept of « social property relations as a tool for analysing the key elements of IR as well as the transition between two international system. A RETURN TO FUNDAMENTALS WITH THE NEW MARXISM