Presentation on theme: "IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS"— Presentation transcript:
1 IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Neo-Gramscian Theory
2 Antonio Gramsci (Founder of the Communist Party of Italy (1921)Elected to the Italian Parliament (1924)Imprisoned by Mussolini’s Fascist Government in 1926Principal work: Quaderni de Carcere—Prison Notebooks ( )
3 Intellectual Roots Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) Karl Marx ( )
4 PhilosophyRadical social ontology—an ontology of praxis, an understanding of social reality as the conscious creation of human history
5 Philosophy (Continued Gramsci: Reality is a product of the application of human will to the society of things, and this process of producing reality entails the historical transformation of human beings and their social lives.
8 Major Elements of Gramscian Theory Critique of Economic DeterminismConcept of HegemonyTheory of Hegemony
9 Critique of Economic Determinism Significance of culture and social consciousnessBackground: Success of revolution in the East (Russia), failure in the WestImplicit critique of false consciousness thesis
10 Concept of HegemonyDistinction between mainstream and Gramscian understandings of hegemonyMainstream: power as capability or power as a relation
11 Gramscian Concept of Power Dual nature of powerCentaur: half-man, half-beastCoercion and Consent (capability and moral leadership)
12 Gramscian Theory of Hegemony Distinction between Dominance and HegemonyPolitical society/Civil society nexus
13 Theory of Hegemony (Continued Significance of Civil SocietyInstitutions of Civil societyMoral education
14 SUMMARY Expanded notion of power Significance of cultural hegemony Civil society/State nexus
15 Neo-Gramscian Theory Key Figure: Robert W. Cox Principal ElementsNature of Theory: Theory is always for someone and for some purpose.Two distinct purposes of theory: (a) to be guide to help solve the problem posed within a particular perspective; and (b) reflecting upon the process of theorising itself.
16 Two Kinds of Theory Problem-solving Theory Takes the world as it finds itMake relationships and institutions work smoothlyCeteris paribus assumptionFixed realityAssumption of value neutrality
17 Two Kinds of Theory (Continued) Critical TheoryStands apart from the prevailing orderAsks how that order came aboutQuestions the ceteris paribus assumptionChanging realityValue commitment
18 Distinction Mainstream IR Stable world Study of inter-relationships among states in which nation-states are the principal aggregations of political powerWar and peace
19 Distinction (Continued) Critical IRChange in IRDifferent kinds of states and non-state entitiesMultiplicity of goalsGreater complexity
21 Three Spheres of Activity 1. Organisation of Production (Social forces engendered by the production process).2. Forms of state (Derived from different state/society complexes).3. World Orders (Particular configurations of forces)
22 Social ForcesMaterial CapabilitiesIdeasInstitutions
23 Material Capabilities Technological and organisationalcapabilities, natural resources, stocks ofequipment (industries and armaments),and wealth
24 IdeasTwo Kinds:(1) inter-subjective meanings: shared notions of the nature of social relations which influence habits and expectations of behaviour
25 Ideas(2) Collective images of social order held by different groups of people (nature of power relations, meanings of justice and public good)
26 InstitutionsReflect the power relations at any given time. Institutionalisation is a process of stabilising a particular order.
27 InstitutionsClose connection between institutionalisation and hegemony: Institutions provide ways of dealing with conflicts so as to minimise the use of force).
28 InstitutionsHegemonic strategy: to allow representation of diverse interests
30 Two Key QuestionsWhat are the mechanisms for maintaining hegemony in this particular historical structure?What social forces and/or forms of state have been generated within it which could oppose and ultimately bring about a transformation of the structure?
31 Three Developments Internationalisation of the state. Internationalisation of production.Emergence of a transnational managerial class.
32 Three Possible Scenarios New HegemonyNon-hegemonic orderCounter-hegemony
33 Robert W. CoxKey Text:Production, Power and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History (1987)