Presentation on theme: "IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS"— Presentation transcript:
1IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Neo-Gramscian Theory
2Antonio Gramsci (Founder of the Communist Party of Italy (1921)Elected to the Italian Parliament (1924)Imprisoned by Mussolini’s Fascist Government in 1926Principal work: Quaderni de Carcere—Prison Notebooks ( )
3Intellectual Roots Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) Karl Marx ( )
4PhilosophyRadical social ontology—an ontology of praxis, an understanding of social reality as the conscious creation of human history
5Philosophy (Continued Gramsci: Reality is a product of the application of human will to the society of things, and this process of producing reality entails the historical transformation of human beings and their social lives.
8Major Elements of Gramscian Theory Critique of Economic DeterminismConcept of HegemonyTheory of Hegemony
9Critique of Economic Determinism Significance of culture and social consciousnessBackground: Success of revolution in the East (Russia), failure in the WestImplicit critique of false consciousness thesis
10Concept of HegemonyDistinction between mainstream and Gramscian understandings of hegemonyMainstream: power as capability or power as a relation
11Gramscian Concept of Power Dual nature of powerCentaur: half-man, half-beastCoercion and Consent (capability and moral leadership)
12Gramscian Theory of Hegemony Distinction between Dominance and HegemonyPolitical society/Civil society nexus
13Theory of Hegemony (Continued Significance of Civil SocietyInstitutions of Civil societyMoral education
14SUMMARY Expanded notion of power Significance of cultural hegemony Civil society/State nexus
15Neo-Gramscian Theory Key Figure: Robert W. Cox Principal ElementsNature of Theory: Theory is always for someone and for some purpose.Two distinct purposes of theory: (a) to be guide to help solve the problem posed within a particular perspective; and (b) reflecting upon the process of theorising itself.
16Two Kinds of Theory Problem-solving Theory Takes the world as it finds itMake relationships and institutions work smoothlyCeteris paribus assumptionFixed realityAssumption of value neutrality
17Two Kinds of Theory (Continued) Critical TheoryStands apart from the prevailing orderAsks how that order came aboutQuestions the ceteris paribus assumptionChanging realityValue commitment
18Distinction Mainstream IR Stable world Study of inter-relationships among states in which nation-states are the principal aggregations of political powerWar and peace
19Distinction (Continued) Critical IRChange in IRDifferent kinds of states and non-state entitiesMultiplicity of goalsGreater complexity
21Three Spheres of Activity 1. Organisation of Production (Social forces engendered by the production process).2. Forms of state (Derived from different state/society complexes).3. World Orders (Particular configurations of forces)
30Two Key QuestionsWhat are the mechanisms for maintaining hegemony in this particular historical structure?What social forces and/or forms of state have been generated within it which could oppose and ultimately bring about a transformation of the structure?
31Three Developments Internationalisation of the state. Internationalisation of production.Emergence of a transnational managerial class.
32Three Possible Scenarios New HegemonyNon-hegemonic orderCounter-hegemony
33Robert W. CoxKey Text:Production, Power and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History (1987)