Presentation on theme: "Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 340 Drugs in America Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali Theories of Drug Use."— Presentation transcript:
Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 340 Drugs in America Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali Theories of Drug Use
Biological Theories: n Genetic Factors: n Predisposition to drug use? n Genetic influences and level of intoxication reached when using a particular drug n Racial and ethnic backgrounds impacted differently?
n Genetic factors in drug abuse: research focusing on alcoholism. Adopted children? n Inheritance only a factor in making someone a compulsive drinker n Biology and abusive drinking: What is the link? n Children of alcoholics vs. non-alcoholic parents
Metabolic Imbalance: n A factor in narcotic addiction n Heroin addicts suffer “metabolic” disease or disorder n Seen in diabetics n Narcotics: stabilizers…..craving opiates n Providing what the body lacks/cannot provide
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES: u Reinforcement u Desire increase with continued administration….opiates (Exp. Independent of personality characs, etc….) u Types of reinforcement: positive (pleasurable feeling and motivation to repeat what caused it) and negative (avoiding pain therefore being rewarded and motivated to achieve relief)
Inadequate Personality: n Dysfunctional or emotionally unstable where drugs become more appealing to “users” n Escape from reality n The self-esteem or self-derogation perspective n Controversy in the theory explaining that the use of illicit drugs is a consequence of social rejection??
Problem-Behavior Proneness: n Drug use as a form of “deviant” behavior or “problem” behavior n The likelihood that a person may be prone t using illicit drugs n Users less attached to parents, rebellious, risk takers, etc…
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES n ANOMIE THEORY: n Robert Merton 1930s n Increased gap between the goals and the means to achieving these desired goals in society n Modes of adaptation in formation to attain these goals: innovators, retreatists, rebellious, conformists, ritualists
SOCIAL CONTROL AND SELF-CONTROL THEORY n Why some people refrain from committing crime? n How strong our social control measures/bonds that pull us away from committing crime n Control theory main argument: people are motivated to conform but need no motivation to deviate
n Therefore we are all inclined to deviate unless we are “controlled” n according to Hirschi: deviance is normal, it is conformity that needs to be explained n Hirschi and Gottfredson: drawing the line between control theory and “positivistic” theories. “P” theories examine factors that will positively motivate people to commit crime
Social Disorganization: n Lack of cohesion, solidarity and integration will cause deviance and crime in society n Social Dis evolved in studying urban crime at the Univ of Chicago n Shaw and McKay: rates of delinquency increased closer to the inner city when compared to the more affluent (among all racial groups) n Urban ecology and the Plant versus the environment (Robert Park) and the Concentric Zone Theory
n Different zones and urban decay in the zone of transition: broken homes, poor housing conditions, heterogeneous populations, low SES n Therefore more crime rates and deviances n Is it behavior that’s causing deviance or is it the urban conditions?
n Routine activities theory perceives crime as another activity in society, and that there is no mystery in its occurring. n Crime rates, according to Cohen and Felson, (1979) are usually affected by three elements that occur in time and space: (1) motivated offenders, (2) suitable targets, and (3) an absence of capable guardians against a violation. n Routine activities theory examined the importance of having guardians in specific places and keeping an eye on potential crime targets.
CONFLICT THEORY: n Structure of American society n In crease in the gap between the rich and poor in American society n The macro view of drug abuse and the impact drugs have on society as a whole n Economic opportunities since 1970s n Poor are getting poorer and the rich richer
n Wilson’s “the truly disadvantaged” and the “underclass” with high rates of unemployment, abuse, and illegitimate births n Lack of social ties between neighborhoods n 3 factors: decay of working class sector, economic gap growth, physical and political decay of poorer areas
CONCLUSION n Association with other and the impact it has on drug use/abuse n The culture/subculture of American society n The economic gap n The concentric zones n Does location matter in the use/predisposition to using drugs n Demonology and its popularity in today’s society
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