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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY"— Presentation transcript:


2 Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model
Shaw and McKay Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay mad the first geographic map of the distribution of crime in the 1920’s. They used the model that Burgess used to describe the city as a series of concentric rings. In this model, industry is at the center of the city. The further one travels to the outer edge of the ring, the less urban the area. The central business district is immediately surrounded by a zone in transition.

3 Concentric Zone Model Rates for Delinquency were highest at the Center and Declined as one Moved away from the Center ALL Rates were higher All rates were higher: TB, adult crime, infant mortality and mental disorder. This initially suggests that crime is a lower class phenomenon. This could be partially true, except for the method which Shaw and McKay conducted their study.

4 Concentric Zone Model Shaw and McKay studied the transition zones during , and During these times, different waves of immigration occurred. For example, first came the Irish, then the Polish. They occupied the same real estate, one after another. One immigrant group moved in rapid succession from each zone to the next, always in transition. As the immigrant groups moved, the rates of delinquency remained constant. These rates remained constant, despite the fact that DIFFERENT GROUPS NOW OCCUPIED THE AREAS.

5 Shaw and McKay The City is an Organism
Life Experience Varied from one location to another Values and Norms are Transmitted from Neighborhoods Delinquency is a Systemic Problem Using the Concentric Zone model, one could predict some crime phenomenon. For example, areas with high population turnover, a part of social disorganization, had predictably high crime rates. Carefully look at the statement of Values and Norms. This suggests that delinquency has more to do with where a person lives than any other factor. Where did Shaw and McKay get their data for their studies from? Census data and official crime data. Juvenile delinquency should be understood not as individual behavior, but as group delinquency. A delinquent is not necessarily disorganized, maladjusted or antisocial; s/he has intimate associations with predatory gangs or other forms of criminal organizations. These kids affect the values, attitudes, and norms that they are exposed to, and learn the techniques of crime (eg, how to steal cars). They have contact with concrete individuals who become wealthy and gain high prestige through ''unconventional'' means (the clothes, cars and other possessions of these successful criminals are unmistakable evidence of their 'success').

6 Social Disorganization
Rapid Changes in industrialization or Immigration Decline in Effectiveness of Informal Social Control (Social Disorganization) Development of delinquency areas: Geographically Rooted

7 Primary Relationships
The Weakening of Primary Relationships causes Social Disorganization Primary Relationships: Family Friendships Social controls Rodney Stark (1987)High Rates of Deviance is from: Density, Poverty, Mixed Use, Transience and Dilapidation Primary Relationships are social Controls. The bonds that are established between friends, family and intimate social contact serve to create cohesive neighborhoods. This concept is also used to help define Labeling Theory and Control Theory. ROBERT E. PARK TELLS US I. SOCIETY CONSISTS OF PRIMARY GROUPS These are the face to face intimate social relationships. FAMILY, NEIGHBORHOOD GOVERNED BY NATURALLY PRODUCED FOLKWAYS SECONDARY GROUPS LARGE, FORMAL,IMPERSONAL PRODUCES INSTITUTIONS LIKE CHURCH, SCHOOL, COURTS DESIGNED TO HELP OUT FAMILY AND NEIGHBORHOOD ALSO, UNDERMINES DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL BY THEM Replacement of primary groups with secondary groups is dangerous. The city is impersonal. When an area lacks social controls, the social controls that prevent crime are not present. Rodney Stark is a contemporary student of Social Disorganization. He theorized that “deviant places” are more likely to produce criminal behavior than other factors.

8 Symbolic Interactionism
Human Behavior is a Product of Social Symbols Communicated between individuals During the Process of Communicating, we Define ourselves and others We form our Self Concept from our perception of what others think of us This is a Labeling Theory Concept Although the University of Chicago developed this theory, they never named it, Labeling Theorists did The theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism is based on the premise that communication is merely an exchange of symbols. That is to say that what is communicated to one person by an exchange of ideas takes on a different meaning by a totally different recipient. For example, my son, when he wants to communicate that is ideal to another person, he says “that’s sick”. This means that what he is referring to is really a great product or idea. Not only are exchanges of symbols introduced but what is normal is also introduced. In some societies, for example, French or Portuguese, the drinking of wine at the table, even by minors is culturally acceptable. There is an exchange of what is normal to all members of the social party. Now, let’s observe in our minds what else could be communicated: What if it were acceptable to shoot someone if they looked at their girlfriend. What if the exchange of symbolic norms included stealing from someone that was not a member of one’s disruptive group? For the sake of symbolic interactionism, guidelines for behavior are relative. Misreading situational guidelines could lead to locally rule violating behavior. For example, where you live, right-on-red is legal. What if you go to another state where it is not? Cook County Juvenile Court (Chicago) Delinquency was associated with older delinquent boys associating with younger boys just introduced in the court system.

9 Sellin: Culture Conflict and Crime
Conduct Norms Primary conflict When Two Different Cultures Govern Behavior Secondary Conflict Smaller Subcultures Form Thorsten Sellin was not a member of the Chicago School. The central theme of his book Culture Conflict and Crime(1938) were from the Chicago School. In primary conflict, a group is guided by the “old world” behavior and have transplanted to the “new world”. That group cannot simply shed their CONDUCT NORMS. This creates a conflict. In secondary conflict, smaller cultures are created within the larger one. Have you ever wondered when we categorize gangs we usually begin with race or culture? For example Black gangs, Asian Gangs, Hispanic gangs. The disruptive group is a product of secondary conflict.

10 Elements of Cultural Deviance Theory
Poverty Socialization Subculture Success Goal Crime and Delinquency Criminal Careers Cultural Devience Theory was lectured in a separate lecture. However, the formation of devient groups is a product of Social Disorganization. (You should have seen this slide before) Poverty: Lack of opporturnity is compounded by feeling of opression. Socialization:Lower class groups are socialized to value middle class goals and ideas. They are introduced to the fact that they canot possibly get what middle class has. SUBCULTURE: blocked opporturnities prompt group formation. These groups have alternate values Alternate means of obtaining SUCCESS GOAL ( similar in concept to Innovation) Crime and Delinquency ( Institutionalization) Career criminals: Some gang members can be “successful” in criminal careers.

11 Social Disorganization Theory ( Sampson and Groves)
Low Economic status Mixture of Different Ethnic Groups Highly Mobile Residents in and out of the Area Disrupted Families and Broken Homes Sampson and Groves found consistent rules about crime and delinquency in They theorized that the social controls from primary relationships precluded crime.

12 African American Sociologists
“high Black Crime Rates are , in large measure, the result of where they live”(Rodney Stark,1987) During the period following slavery, disorientation of societal norms (Work, 1939) Patterns of delinquent behavior beginning at years (Frazier, 1939) Stark, in later findings reiterated what Shaw and McKay found in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Residence in devient places is the cause of differences in crime rates. In other words, it is not who are as much as where you live that determines one’s criminality. Work, a graduate of Chicago’s Masters in Sociology program explained that during the period following slavery, African Americans experienced a breakdown of societal norms. Emancipation and Reconstruction created a disorganized state that reflected in higher crime rates. The phenomenon of higher crime rates followed the migrants to the north. Frazier, a noted sociologist, suggested that Black adolescent boys begin patterns of delinquent behavior at years. This condition was compounded by absentee fathers, separated parents and lack of parental control. The studies of all three centered around the concept that cities are divided into zones of urbanization.

13 Rodney Starks theory of Deviant Neighborhoods
Dense Neighborhoods have Crowded homes Crowded homes force family members outside: Increase opportunity to deviate Lower levels of supervision of children Poor School Achievement Mixed use Neighborhoods Increased Opportunity for Deviance Stark developed a theory that were 30 propositions. These are a sampling of the rules for deviance. The problems created by dense neighborhoods compound themselves. Mixed use neighborhoods: Industrial/residential.

14 Empirical Support of Social Disorganization
Two Data Gathering Methods: Official Data Crime figures,census reports, housing and welfare records Life History Folk psychology or “ethnography” If the population center alone were responsible, then any population center should have similar crime rates, in proportion to the population. If this were so then any neighborhood with a population of over a certain amount should have the same rate. Statistically, the more anonomyous the area, the higher the crime rate. In violent crime in 2001 it was 332.7 per 100,000 for populations of 10, 668.3 per 100,000 for populations of 100, ,999 BUT Growth in Cities is not always associated with crime: Switzerland controlled its urban growth, stabilizing its crime rate. This suggests that urban growth,not urbanization is responsible for a spike in crime. Rates of crime are highest in city centers in Canada, Great Britain, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Uganda and Soviet Union.

15 Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)
Urban Renewal Projects: Environmental Design: Crime Prevention should focus on the environment rather than the offender Defensible Space Architecture: The Federal government adopted these concepts into public buildings and planning Environmental Design was popular in the 60’s and 70’s. C. Ray Jeffrey Oscar Newman, an architect(1972) a physical area would be better insulated against crime if those who live there recognize it as their territory. Possibly a response to the Watts riots?

16 Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)
Operation Weed and Seed: Weed out negative influences and Seed the neighborhoods Coordination with law enforcement Weed out traffickers Community Policing Seeding by youth activity Kansas City, Trenton NJ, Omaha Neb 1999

17 Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)
Conditions of Parole and Probation As a condition of your probation, you are not allowed to associate with any other probationers… The Chicago Area Project(1934) Recreational Facilities for youth Existed from 1934-present 70 YEARS! Direct service, advocacy and community involvement CAP was started by Shaw and McKay


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