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Presentation on theme: "The Chicago School II SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY."— Presentation transcript:


2 Shaw and McKay Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model

3 Concentric Zone Model  Rates for Delinquency were highest at the Center and Declined as one Moved away from the Center  ALL Rates were higher

4 Concentric Zone Model

5 Shaw and McKay The City is an Organism Life Experience Varied from one location to another Values and Norms are Transmitted from Neighborhoods Delinquency is a Systemic Problem

6 Social Disorganization Rapid Changes in industrialization or Immigration Decline in Effectiveness of Informal Social Control (Social Disorganization) Development of delinquency areas: Geographically Rooted

7 Primary Relationships  The Weakening of Primary Relationships causes Social Disorganization  Primary Relationships: Family Friendships  Social controls  Rodney Stark (1987)High Rates of Deviance is from: Density, Poverty, Mixed Use, Transience and Dilapidation

8 Symbolic Interactionism  Human Behavior is a Product of Social Symbols Communicated between individuals  During the Process of Communicating, we Define ourselves and others  We form our Self Concept from our perception of what others think of us  This is a Labeling Theory Concept

9 Sellin: Culture Conflict and Crime Conduct Norms  Primary conflict  When Two Different Cultures Govern Behavior  Secondary Conflict  Smaller Subcultures Form

10 Elements of Cultural Deviance Theory  Poverty  Socialization  Subculture  Success Goal  Crime and Delinquency  Criminal Careers

11 Social Disorganization Theory ( Sampson and Groves)  Low Economic status  Mixture of Different Ethnic Groups  Highly Mobile Residents in and out of the Area  Disrupted Families and Broken Homes

12 African American Sociologists  “high Black Crime Rates are, in large measure, the result of where they live”(Rodney Stark,1987)  During the period following slavery, disorientation of societal norms (Work, 1939)  Patterns of delinquent behavior beginning at years (Frazier, 1939)

13 Rodney Starks theory of Deviant Neighborhoods  Dense Neighborhoods have Crowded homes  Crowded homes force family members outside: Increase opportunity to deviate  Lower levels of supervision of children  Poor School Achievement  Mixed use Neighborhoods  Increased Opportunity for Deviance

14 Empirical Support of Social Disorganization Two Data Gathering Methods:  Official Data  Crime figures,census reports, housing and welfare records  Life History  Folk psychology or “ethnography”

15 Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)  Urban Renewal Projects: Environmental Design : Crime Prevention should focus on the environment rather than the offender  Defensible Space Architecture: The Federal government adopted these concepts into public buildings and planning

16 Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)  Operation Weed and Seed: Weed out negative influences and Seed the neighborhoods  Coordination with law enforcement  Weed out traffickers  Community Policing  Seeding by youth activity

17 Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)  Conditions of Parole and Probation  As a condition of your probation, you are not allowed to associate with any other probationers…  The Chicago Area Project(1934)  Recreational Facilities for youth  Existed from 1934-present 70 YEARS!  Direct service, advocacy and community involvement

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