2Questions What is a stratified society? What is the culture of poverty?How do these two issues affectclass, race, and culture?
3Social Structure Theories Criminal Behavior PatternsAre Affected By:Places - Places not people cause crime, i.e., deteriorated lower-class areas.Socioeconomic placement in society can influence the potential for criminal behavior, i.e., unable to attain social or economic success.
4Social Structure Theories: The Underlying Premise The real crime problem is a lower class phenomenon.Those that live in equivalent social environments tend to behave in a predictable fashion. If the environment did not affect human behavior, then crime rates would be dispersed equally across the social structure.
7Social Disorganization Theory: Concentric Zone Theory MAJOR PREMISECrime is a product oftransitional neighborhoodsthat manifestsocial disorganizationand value conflict.STRENGTHSIdentifies why crime ratesare highest in slum areas.Points out the factors thatproduce crime. Suggestsprograms to helpreduce crime.
9Factors That Affect Crime The Social Ecology School Transitional neighborhoodsCommunity deteriorationPoverty concentrationEmployment opportunitiesCommunity fear, i.e., race, gangs, mistrust.Community changeCollective efficacy, i.e., informal, institutional, and public social control
11Question According to social disorganization theory, how does fear affect a ‘disorganized’ neighborhood?
12Strain Theories Crime is a direct result of the frustration and anger of the lower-classto achieve culturally defined goals,i.e., wealth, success, power;however,the means to acquire these goalsare stymied by the stratificationof class and status in society.
14AnomieDurkheim: Norms have broken down because of rapid social change, i.e., traditions and values.Merton: Culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them have broken down, i.e., education and hard work.Messner and Rosenfeld: The American Dream as a goal and a process. Crime becomes the strategy for attaining wealth.
15Why would Durkheim suggest that crime may be beneficial to society? QuestionWhy would Durkheim suggest that crimemay be beneficial to society?
16Strain Theory: Anomie Major Premise Strengths People who adopt the goals ofsociety but lack the means to attain themseek alternatives, such as crime.Major PremisePoints out how competition for success createsconflict and crime. Suggests that social conditionsand not personality can account for crime.Can explain middle- and upper-class crime.Strengths
18Strain Theory: General Strain Theory Strain has a variety of sources.Strain causes crime in the absenceof adequate coping mechanisms.Major PremiseIdentifies the complexities of strain in modernsociety. Expands on anomie theory.Shows the influence of social eventson behavior over the life course.Strengths
19Sources of General Strain (Individual) Social: peer or social group.Community factors: ecological, i.e., goals, economic deprivation, interaction of frustrated individuals.Negative affective states: failure to achieve goals or expectations, the loss of positive stimuli, i.e., friend or family member; and, presentation of negative stimuli, i.e., abuse. Causes: fear, anger, depression, frustration, and disappointment.
20Relative Deprivation Theory Perceptions of economic and social inequality lead to feelings of envy, mistrust, and aggressionLower-class people feel both deprived and embitteredMinorities feel relative deprivation more acutely than non-minorities
26Cultural Deviance Theory: Sellin’s Culture Conflict Theory STRENGTHSIdentifies the aspects of lower-class life that produce street crime. Adds to Shaw and McKay’s analysis.Creates the concept of culture conflictMAJOR PREMISEObedience to the norms of their lower-class culture puts people in conflictwith the normsof the dominant culture.
27Questions According to Walter Miller, what are the “focal concerns” or values that affect lower-class culture.How do these “focal concerns” affectthe lower-class and crime?
29Are Social Structure Theories Valid or Invalid? Those who believe they are valid point to:high crime and delinquency rates in inner-city slumseach branch seems to support and amplify the othersappearance that the concepts may be interdependentThose who believe they are invalid point to:lower-class crime rates may be artifacts of biasa significant number of people living in the slums are not criminalit’s questionable whether a distinct lower-class culture actually exists