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Long Term Memory (1) 1 The Study of Memory 2. Long Term Memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Long Term Memory (1) 1 The Study of Memory 2. Long Term Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Long Term Memory (1) 1 The Study of Memory 2. Long Term Memory

2 Long Term Memory (1) 2 To begin the study of memory, we’ll deal with three questions: 1.Do we learn only with intention? 2.When we exert control over the process, what do we control? 3.If we learn both with and without intention, are these processes different?

3 Long Term Memory (1) 3 1.Do we learn only with intention?  Often, we commit things to memory deliberately, for example by rehearsing.  E.g., using a mnemonic strategy such as the method of loci.  Invention of writing (writing is prostethic memory).

4 Long Term Memory (1) 4 No - we also learn without intention: Language acquisition Examples we set for children Lewicki’s studies 1.Do we learn only with intention?

5 Long Term Memory (1) 5 2. When we exert control, what do we control? a.How long we process the stimulus for at encoding. b.What type of code we generate.

6 Long Term Memory (1) 6 We can control processing time when the stimuli are stable (don’t disappear) encoding is the most important thing to do there are few other important stimuli in our environment 2. When we exert control, what do we control?

7 Long Term Memory (1) 7 2. When we exert control, what do we control? How long we process the stimulus at encoding. Rundus (1971) Serial Position Effect  memory words rehearsed out loud.  recall precisely determined by # of times each word rehearsed.

8 Long Term Memory (1) 8 Position in list % # rehearsals

9 Long Term Memory (1) 9 2. When we exert control, what do we control? How long we process the stimulus at encoding. Ebbinghaus (1885) First scientific study of memory Learned lists of nonsense syllables Developed savings score. Longer lists took longer to learn and were retained better.

10 Long Term Memory (1) When we exert control, what do we control? What type of code do we generate? Not all stimuli permit generation of any type of code we want. For example, recall the Shepard & Metzler stimuli:

11 Long Term Memory (1) 11

12 Long Term Memory (1) When we exert control, what do we control? Shepard & Metzler stimuli have no name, and no semantic category. But most everyday objects have names and categories. So we can choose the type of code we generate (e.g., do we store category? image? name?)

13 Long Term Memory (1) When we exert control, what do we control? A logical next question: If we have a choice of codes, is any particular one better than the others – that is, does it improve recall? Answer: Sometimes. See “Levels of Processing” theory in Chapter 6.

14 Long Term Memory (1) How are learning with and without intention different? Two answers have been offered: 1.Different memory processes 2.Different memory systems

15 Long Term Memory (1) 15 Theory #1 – Different memory processes: Learning with and without intention differ in the type of memory process involved. The same memory system runs both kinds of memory.

16 Long Term Memory (1) 16 Different memory processes Learning with intention happens when you expect that you will have to recall the material. Learning without intention happens when you have no expectation that recall (of unintentionally learned material) will be necessary. This gives us two different kinds of memory test: direct and indirect.

17 Long Term Memory (1) 17 Different memory processes Direct memory tests: When you know your memory is being tested. examples: recalling a list of words recognizing a set of faces

18 Long Term Memory (1) 18 Different memory processes Indirect memory tests: When you don’t know your memory is being tested. Examples: perceptual fluidity (Jacoby et al.) Warrington & Weiskrantz (1970)

19 Long Term Memory (1) 19 Different memory processes Note: intentional vs. unintentional learning direct vs. indirect tests of memory you could have a direct test of unintentional learning, or an indirect test of intentional learning.

20 Long Term Memory (1) 20 Different memory processes A final dichotomy: Content vs. Source memory Content: The material you learn Source: Where and when you learned it.

21 Long Term Memory (1) 21 Different memory processes Components of the argument: Type of learningwith vs. without intention Type of testdirect vs. indirect Type of memorycontent vs. source

22 Long Term Memory (1) 22 Different memory processes The argument for different processes: IntentionContent Source Yes+ + No+ – Learning without intention detected by a test that does not require source memory – an indirect test.

23 Long Term Memory (1) 23 Different memory processes Structure of the argument: Learning with intention results in both content and source memory. Learning without intention gives only content. As a result, the two types of learning yield differing results on direct vs. indirect tests.

24 Long Term Memory (1) 24 Different memory processes Direct tests require content and source memory. Indirect tests draw only upon content memory. E.g., Jacoby tasks – when you’ve just seen a word: it’s easier to perceive it again whether or not you recall seeing it recently.

25 Long Term Memory (1) 25 Theory #2 – Different memory systems. Learning with and without intention differ not so much in the processes involved, but in that two separate memory systems are responsible.

26 Long Term Memory (1) 26 Different memory systems Intentional and unintentional learning draw upon different memory systems: different sets of mental resources storing different kinds of information and dedicated to different purposes this view preferred by many researchers who study effects of brain damage on memory

27 Long Term Memory (1) 27 Different memory systems – an example Tulving – Episodic vs. Semantic memory Episodic memory things you know in virtue of being you what did you have for dinner last night? What did your bathroom scales say this morning?

28 Long Term Memory (1) 28 Different memory systems Semantic memory publicly available information that most people in a society would know what is the capital of Canada? why do we park in a driveway and drive on a parkway?

29 Long Term Memory (1) 29 Different memory systems Systems view – direct memory tests tap episodic memory (what was on the list you read 5 min ago?) Indirect memory tests tap semantic memory – fragment completion depends upon our knowledge of words in the language.

30 Long Term Memory (1) 30 Different memory systems Issue: Is the difference between episodic and semantic memory the same as the difference between content with source and content without source? If so, then the different systems view is really just a version of the different processes view.

31 Long Term Memory (1) 31 Different memory systems Review: The process account argues that direct tests require subject strategies for retrieval, using source information. Those strategies are likely to be impaired in cases of amnesia following brain damage (source information: yes).

32 Long Term Memory (1) 32 Different memory systems Review: The process account argues that indirect tests do not require those retrieval strategies, or source information. This may explain why patients typically do as well as controls on such tests (source information: no).

33 Long Term Memory (1) 33 Different memory systems Review: The systems account suggests that direct tests draw upon episodic memory, while indirect tests draw upon semantic memory. This may turn out to be a version of the different processes view.


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