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Introduction to Human Anatomy& Physiology. ANATOMY ANATOMY - the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts. istology  Histology - the microscopic.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Human Anatomy& Physiology. ANATOMY ANATOMY - the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts. istology  Histology - the microscopic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Human Anatomy& Physiology

2 ANATOMY ANATOMY - the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts. istology  Histology - the microscopic study of tissues. Cytology  Cytology - the microscopic study of cells. PHYSIOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY - the study of the function of body parts.

3 Life Processes Distinguish Living from Non-Living Things. Movement Responsiveness Growth Reproduction Respiration Digestion Absorption Circulation Assimilation Excretion

4 Mental Mapping (use characteristics to categorize the following) I am walking to McDonalds I stop at the traffic light I am getting taller I am breathing air I get a hamburger and eat it My body absorbs nutrients from hamburger The nutrients I absorbed from hamburger is turned into things my body needs Eventually I go to the restroom Someday I may reproduce

5 Mental Mapping (use characteristics to categorize the following) I am walking to McDonalds movement I stop at the traffic light responsiveness I am getting taller growth I am breathing air respiration I get a hamburger and eat it digestion My body absorbs nutrients from hamburger absorption The nutrients I absorbed from hamburger is turned into things my body needs assimilation Eventually I go to the restroom excretion Someday I may reproduce reproduction

6 Environmental Needs  Nutrients for energy  Oxygen for cellular respiration  Water for most metabolic reactions, lubrication, etc…  Heat to maintain 37  C body temperature, enzyme action  Pressure for breathing and filtering blood through kidneys

7 HOMEOSTASIS The tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment.  All life processes and metabolic reactions work to maintain homeostasis.  Most homeostatic mechanisms are regulated by negative feedback (system acts to oppose changes)  Example - maintenance of body temperature at 98.6  F/37  C.

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12 Structural Levels of Organization The atom (i.e. C, H, O) is the least complex level; the smallest particle of an element. Atoms combine with one another to form Atoms combine with one another to form… Molecules (i.e. CO 2, H 2 O); Molecules combine with another to form Molecules combine with another to form…

13 Macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids); Macromolecules combine to form Macromolecules combine to form… Organelles (i.e. cell membrane, nucleus, ribosome); small organs of a cell, each with a particular function; Organelles collectively compose… Organelles collectively compose… Cells (i.e. skin cell, muscle cell, neuron); The cell is the basic unit of structure and function of living things! Similar cells are arranged into… Similar cells are arranged into…

14 Tissues (i.e. epithelia, connective, muscle, nervous); Two or more tissues combine to form Two or more tissues combine to form … Organs (i.e. skin, heart, brain); Two or more organs combine to form Two or more organs combine to form … Organ systems (i.e. integumentary, cardiovascular), The eleven organ systems collectively form the… The human organism; the most complex level of organization.

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16 Divisions of the Human Body Axial Portion Appendicular Portion Head Arms Neck Legs Trunk Axial Portion is divided into 2 major cavities. (organs within these cavities are referred to as viscera.)

17 Dorsal CavityVentral Cavity Subdivided into Subdivided int0 2 parts 2 parts 2 Divisions of Axial Portion of the Body Cranial Cavity Vertebral Cavity Thoracic cavity Abdomino- pelvic Cavity Separated by diaphragm

18 Cranial Cavity Brain Vertebral Cavity Spinal Cord Thoracic Cavity Lungs Mediastinum - separates thorax into right and left sides Heart Esophagus Trachea Thymus gland

19 Abdominopelvic Cavity Stomach Liver Spleen Gall bladder Small and large intestines Rectum/Anus Urinary bladder Internal reproductive organs Abdomen Region Pelvic Region

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21 Serous Membranes of the Ventral Body Cavity Membrane - a soft, thin pliable layer of tissue that either:  Covers a vital (visceral organ) = Visceral membrane.  Lines a body cavity = Parietal Membrane. There is a space between a visceral and parietal membrane into which SEROUS fluid is secreted for lubrication.

22 Serous Membranes of the Heart The membrane on the surface of the heart is called visceral pericardium. The membrane that lines the cavity in which the heart is located is called the parietal pericardium. The space between these two membranes is called the pericardial cavity, and it is filled with serous fluid.

23 Serous Membranes

24 Serous Membranes of the Lungs The membrane on the surface of the lung is called visceral pleura. The membrane that lines the cavity in which the lungs are located is called parietal pleura. The space between these two membranes is called the pleural cavity, and it is filled with serous fluid.

25 Serous Membranes

26 Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Organs: The membrane on the surface of the liver, stomach, etc. is called visceral peritoneum. The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called parietal peritoneum. The space between these two membranes is called the peritoneal cavity, and it is filled with serous fluid

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29 Anatomical Terminology Definition - a language used to describe the relative position of body parts; needed for communication. Anatomical positionAnatomical position - standing erect, face forward, palms forward.

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31 Terms Referring to Direction/Relative Position 1. Superior = above; Inferior = below; 2. Anterior = front; Posterior = back; 3. Medial = Center; Lateral = side; 4. Cephalad = head; Caudal = tail; 5. Ventral = front; Dorsal = back 6. Proximal = closer to trunk; Distal = farther from trunk; 7. Superficial = surface; Deep = internal.

32 Terms Referring to Body Sections (Cuts, Planes) Sagittal cut: divides the body into right and left portions. Midsagittal: equal right and left portions. Frontal Cut: divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. Transverse cut: divides the body into superior and inferior portions.

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35 Abdominal Subdivisions

36 Terms referring to surface anatomy (landmarks) Anterior landmarks Anterior landmarks: a. cranial=skull b. facial=face c. cephalic=head d. cervical=neck e. axillary= armpit f. brachial= upper arm g. antecubital=anterior elbow h. antebrachial= forearm i. carpal=wristj. metacarpal= hand k. digital=finger l. femoral= thigh m. patellar= knee cap n. crural= leg o. frontal= forehead p. orbital=eye q. otic= ear r. buccal=cheek s. nasal= noset. oral= mouth u. mental= chinv. mammary=breast w. umbilical=naval x. coxal= hip y. inguinal= groin aa. Pubic= pelvic bb. tarsal=ankle

37 Terms Referring to Surface Anatomy (Landmarks) Posterior land marks a. acromial = shoulder b. cubital = elbow c. gluteal = buttocks d. popliteal = back of knee e. pedal = foot f. plantar = sole g. dorsal = back h. lumbar = loin i. calcaneal = heel

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