2 ANATOMY - the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts. ANATOMY - the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts.· Histology - the microscopic study of tissues.· Cytology - the microscopic study of cells.PHYSIOLOGY - the study of the function of body parts.
3 Life Processes Distinguish Living from Non-Living Things. MovementResponsivenessGrowthReproductionRespirationDigestionAbsorptionCirculationAssimilationExcretion
4 Mental Mapping (use characteristics to categorize the following) I am walking to McDonaldsI stop at the traffic lightI am getting tallerI am breathing airI get a hamburger and eat itMy body absorbs nutrients from hamburgerThe nutrients I absorbed from hamburger is turned into things my body needsEventually I go to the restroomSomeday I may reproduce
5 Mental Mapping (use characteristics to categorize the following) I am walking to McDonalds movementI stop at the traffic light responsivenessI am getting taller growthI am breathing air respirationI get a hamburger and eat it digestionMy body absorbs nutrients from hamburger absorptionThe nutrients I absorbed from hamburger is turned into things my body needs assimilationEventually I go to the restroom excretionSomeday I may reproduce reproduction
6Environmental Needs Nutrients for energy Oxygen for cellular respirationWater for most metabolic reactions, lubrication, etc…Heat to maintain 37C body temperature, enzyme actionPressure for breathing and filtering blood through kidneys
7HOMEOSTASISThe tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment.All life processes and metabolic reactions work to maintain homeostasis.Most homeostatic mechanisms are regulated by negative feedback (system acts to oppose changes)Example - maintenance of body temperature at 98.6F/37C.
12Structural Levels of Organization The atom (i.e. C, H, O) is the least complex level; the smallest particle of an element.Atoms combine with one another to form…Molecules (i.e. CO2, H2O);Molecules combine with another to form…
13Macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids); Macromolecules combine to form…Organelles (i.e. cell membrane, nucleus, ribosome); small organs of a cell, each with a particular function;Organelles collectively compose…Cells (i.e. skin cell, muscle cell, neuron); The cell is the basic unit of structure and function of living things!Similar cells are arranged into…
14Tissues (i.e. epithelia, connective, muscle, nervous); Two or more tissues combine to form…Organs (i.e. skin, heart, brain);Two or more organs combine to form…Organ systems (i.e. integumentary, cardiovascular),The eleven organ systems collectively form the…The human organism; the most complex level of organization.
16Divisions of the Human Body Axial Portion Appendicular PortionHead ArmsNeck LegsTrunkAxial Portion is divided into 2 major cavities. (organs within these cavities are referred to as viscera.)
172 Divisions of Axial Portion of the Body Dorsal Cavity Ventral CavitySubdivided into Subdivided int0 2 parts partsCranial CavityVertebral CavityThoracic cavityAbdomino-pelvic CavitySeparated by diaphragm
18Cranial CavityBrainVertebral CavitySpinal CordThoracic CavityLungsMediastinum - separates thorax into right and left sidesHeartEsophagusTracheaThymus gland
19Abdominopelvic Cavity StomachLiverSpleenGall bladderSmall and large intestinesRectum/AnusUrinary bladderInternal reproductive organsAbdomen RegionPelvic Region
21Serous Membranes of the Ventral Body Cavity Membrane - a soft, thin pliable layer of tissue that either:· Covers a vital (visceral organ) = Visceral membrane.· Lines a body cavity = Parietal Membrane.There is a space between a visceral and parietal membrane into which SEROUS fluid is secreted for lubrication.
22Serous Membranes of the Heart The membrane on the surface of the heart is called visceral pericardium.The membrane that lines the cavity in which the heart is located is called the parietal pericardium.The space between these two membranes is called the pericardial cavity, and it is filled with serous fluid.
24Serous Membranes of the Lungs The membrane on the surface of the lung is called visceral pleura.The membrane that lines the cavity in which the lungs are located is called parietal pleura. The space between these two membranes is called the pleural cavity, and it is filled with serous fluid.
26Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Organs: The membrane on the surface of the liver, stomach, etc. is called visceral peritoneum.The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called parietal peritoneum.The space between these two membranes is called the peritoneal cavity, and it is filled with serous fluid
32Terms Referring to Body Sections (Cuts, Planes) Sagittal cut: divides the body into right and left portions.Midsagittal: equal right and left portions.Frontal Cut: divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.Transverse cut: divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
36Terms referring to surface anatomy (landmarks) Anterior landmarks:a. cranial=skull b. facial=facec. cephalic=head d. cervical=necke. axillary= armpit f. brachial= upper armg. antecubital=anterior elbowh. antebrachial= forearmi. carpal=wrist j. metacarpal= handk. digital=finger l. femoral= thighm. patellar= knee cap n. crural= lego. frontal= forehead p. orbital=eyeq. otic= ear r. buccal=cheeks. nasal= nose t. oral= mouthu. mental= chin v. mammary=breastw. umbilical=naval x. coxal= hipy. inguinal= groin aa. Pubic= pelvicbb. tarsal=ankle
37Terms Referring to Surface Anatomy (Landmarks) Posterior land marksa. acromial = shoulderb. cubital = elbowc. gluteal = buttocksd. popliteal = back of kneee. pedal = footf. plantar = soleg. dorsal = backh. lumbar = loini. calcaneal = heel