Presentation on theme: "Blood Borne Pathogens And Universal Precautions Presented by : Catherine Marr."— Presentation transcript:
Blood Borne Pathogens And Universal Precautions Presented by : Catherine Marr
We will Cover- What is a Blood Borne Pathogen What are Universal PrecautionsWhy? OSHA standard –anyone whose job requires exposure to Blood Borne pathogens is required to complete training –employees who are trained in CPR and first aid…Athletic Trainers!
Chapter Objectives Explain what bloodborne pathogens are and how they can infect coaches and athletes. Describe the transmission, symptoms, and treatment of hepatitis B (HBV). Describe the transmission, symptoms, and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Describe how HIV is most often transmitted. List the pros and cons of sports participation of athletes with HBV or HIV infection. Identify universal precautions as mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and how they apply to the coach. Discuss various types of skin wounds (1 st Aid).
What is a Blood Borne Pathogen ? Blood borne Pathogens Blood borne Pathogens – microorganisms that are present in human blood that can cause disease Potentially Infectious Human Body Fluids Potentially Infectious Human Body Fluids – fluids in which blood borne pathogens may be present. Blood, Mucus, Body Secretions/ Fluids (Semen, Vaginal secretions, Cerebrospinal fluid, Synovial fluid, Saliva, Vomit, Urine, Feces), Skin/ body tissue (torn or loose skin), etc…
How Do I Know When To Be Careful? Every contact should be considered potentially harmful, because not everyone knows they are ill or is willing to share their health information. Take precautions every time you are in contact with the body fluids or tissues of another person.
Exposure For exposure to occur you must haveFor exposure to occur you must have –a port of exit, –mode of transmission –port of entry. If any part of this is interrupted, the chain is broken and transmission will not occur. That is why taking the precautions are so important. If you get blood or other bodily fluids on healthy skin you will not become infected. –You are not a sponge and the virus can not soak through.
How Do Germs/Pathogens Enter My Body? Open cuts & scratches Abrasions or scrapes Dermatitis Acne Mucous membranes of mouth, eyes, & nose
Common Blood Borne Pathogens Types of bloodborne pathogens: –Hepatitis B –Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) –Hepatitis C –Hepatitis D –Syphilis Objective: Explain what bloodborne pathogens are and how they can infect coaches and athletes.
Hepatitis B Can Survive On Environmental Surfaces For Up To One Week
Hepatitis B & C Virus (HBV/ HCV) blood borne pathogen that causes inflammation of the liver, chronic liver disease and death Hepatitis means: inflammation of the liver Vaccine is available for Hepatitis B only HBV can survive for at least one week in dried blood Hepatitis C is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United States To protect oneself from being infected with the hepatitis virus you should use Standard Precautions ALWAYS One is often unaware of infection/ Often one has no symptoms or may have flu like symptoms –Symptoms: jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, intermittent nausea, vomiting Common Blood Borne Pathogens Hepatitis Objective: Describe the transmission, symptoms, and treatment of hepatitis B (HBV).
Modes Of Transmission Hepatitis A Fecal - oral route Improper food handling Clothing Raw, contaminated shellfish Poor hand washing after restroom use
Modes Of Transmission Hepatitis B Contact with contaminated surfaces Eyes Mouth Broken Skin Tattoo Body Piercing Shared razor, earrings, toothbrush Sexual Contact
Modes Of Transmission Hepatitis C Blood Transfusion Organ transplant
Common Blood Borne Pathogens Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – blood borne pathogen that attacks the body’s immune system, causing the disease known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). HIV does not survive well outside the body (Not a very resilient virus) No threat of contracting HIV through casual contact –Sexual contact –Blood –Some body fluids –Body tissues Objective: Describe the transmission, symptoms, and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Describe how HIV is most often transmitted.
Where Can I Find These Pathogens? Hands Desks Floors Scissors Exacto Blades Door knobs Books Diapers Broken glass Sharp metal Needles Knives Orthodontic wires Restroom surfaces And more
How Do I Prevent Transmission? Hand washing vigorously for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water Gloves Disinfect with KISD approved cleaners Double bag contaminated articles Remove contaminated materials from work area ASAP Dispose of sharps in appropriate container
Bloodborne Pathogens in Athletics Items to be covered: What are the risks of transmitting a communicable virus? Who makes the policies relative to transmission of bloodborne pathogens? Who should be tested? Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991 Objective: List the pros and cons of sports participation of athletes with HBV or HIV infection.
Universal Precautions in an Athletic Environment Objective: Identify universal precautions as mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and how they apply to the coach. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Prepare the athlete What happens when bleeding occurs in competition? Personal precautions
Universal Precautions Universal Precautions – guidelines that require staff to treat all blood, body fluids, sewage and similar materials as infected with a blood borne pathogens Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)– Equipment that is required to protect personnel from coming in contact with blood and body fluids (Gloves, Masks, Face Shields etc.) Should only be worn once and thrown away Gloves should be removed one at a time As you remove your hand from the glove, turn it inside out. Take the other hand out of the 2nd glove, Turning it inside out and place them into the 1st glove for disposal. Wash hands immediately after removal of gloves One way valve breathing barrier device for trauma team members to be used if performing CPR
Soap and Water Hand Washing Hand Washing Wash hands immediately after removing Personal Protective Equipment Use a soft antibacterial soap –A hand sanitizer can be used but wash with soap and water as soon as possible Wash for 15-20 sec (sing “Happy Birthday”) –Wet hands with warm water –Apply soap –For at least 20 seconds, rub hands together, making sure to spread soap foam on palms, between fingers, fingertips and backs of hands –Rinse hands under running water –Pat hands dry with paper towels –Turn of water using paper towel to prevent recontamination of hands
Hand Sanitizers Use Apply a dime sized portion of hand sanitizer to the palm of your hand Wet the fingertips of each hand with the sanitizer Rub hands palm to palm, between fingers, and the back of hands Continue rubbing until your hands are dry
To prevent illness Wash hands frequently BEFORE You eat Treat a break in skin Care for ill person/animal Insert or remove contact lenses AFTER Use restroom Handle uncooked foods Change a diaper Sneeze, cough or blow your nose Handle garbage Care for ill/injured Touch an animal Remove gloves used as personal protective equipment
Clean Up & Decontamination Always cleanup, decontaminate & dispose of all contaminated material in the proper manner Articles contaminated with blood, should be thrown away in a triple bagged garbage can. If contaminated articles are thrown away in a classroom wastebasket, have a custodian remove it as soon as possible. If an article is saturated with blood, it should be placed in a red biohazard bag. Do not pick up broken glass with bare hands Call the Janitorial Staff for clean up Always wear PPE (gloves) Do an initial wipe up Spray surface with approved cleaner (10% bleach solution, 70% alcohol or other disinfectant) and allow it to stand for ten minutes then wipe up Dispose of all wipes in biohazard containers PPE should be removed and disposed of in biohazard containers
Biohazard Containers The universal BIOHAZARD sign is used to alert employees that containers may contain infectious materials. Sharps Container(s) – Red, used to discard contaminated, presumed contaminated or non-contaminated) sharps.
Exposure Incident A specific incident of contact with potentially infectious bodily fluid If there are no infiltrations of mucous membranes or open skin surfaces, it is not considered an occupational exposure Report all exposures accidents/ incidents involving blood or bodily fluids to the Building Principal, Athletic Trainers, Nurse or your supervisor immediately Post exposure procedures –Medical evaluation –Documentation of exposure route –Blood test –Counseling –Evaluation of reported illness
Skin Wounds Types of skin wounds –Abrasion (A) –Laceration (B) –Puncture (C) –Incision (D) – Avulsion (E) Objective: Discuss various types of skin wounds. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
Summary Treat all blood and bodily fluids as if they are contaminated Consider every contact potentially harmful. Always use Personal Protective Equipment (gloves) Wash your hands frequently (often) Dispose of contaminated material properly If exposed- report it immediately
For more information Occupational Safety and Health Administration http://www.osha.gov HIV/AIDS Prevention http://cdc.gov/nchstp/hiv_aids/dhap Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov Bloodborne pathogens self-study module http://www2.umdnj.edu/eohssweb/bbp/int ro.htm