Presentation on theme: "Curriculum Based Measurement"— Presentation transcript:
1 Curriculum Based Measurement Grant Wood AEA 10Austin Beer and Heather Marolf, School PsychologistsAugust 11th, 2010DIBELS Content Taken from the DIBELS Assessment ManualWelcome.You are here to learn about CBM– administration and use of norms data.A few questions to get to know our group today:Poll anywhere Questions:What is your Job Category?Psychologists?Consultants?SLP?SSW?Other? Please state what your role is with the agency.What is your understanding of Curriculum Based Assessment (CBM)?What is a CBM?I have heard of CBMs?I have used CBMS a few times?I have used CBMs often.I could teach others about CBMs.What CBMs are you familiar with?DIBELSeasycbm.comFuchs and FuchsJamestownWritten Language Story Starters
2 Why are CBMs important? Fundamental to the work we do. Individual student levelSystem LevelClassroom/Teacher LevelCBMs can be used at a variety of levels of problem solving- screening- progress monitoring- CBE/Diagnoistic evaluation- Formative (drives instructions)8:30 -8:45 Overview, CBM Norms (slides 1-16) TRACY8:45 – 9:30 Use of norms/IDM (slides 17-47) TINA9:30 -9:45 Eligibility (slides 48-53) TINABREAK10:00 -11:30 DIBELS (slides 54- ) TRACYLUNCH12:45-1:15 DIBELS (slides -110) TRACY1:15 -2:15 Math (slides ) TINA2:25 – 3:30 WL (slides ) TRACY3:30- 4:00 Resources/Questions (slides 147) TINA
3 CBM TRAINING AGENDA Overview of CBM and Norms Use of Norms in the Problem Solving processAdministration and ScoringReading: DIBELS NEXT/JamestownMathWritten LanguageResourcesHere are the things we need to get through today:There is a lot of information to cover.We have taken 2 days worth of information and crunched it into one day.This is important information for you to know, we know it’s a lot.It’s the basic foundation of information you will need to have to function day to day.At this point you may be wondering what it is "you do" this is fundamental to what you will do on a daily basis.8:30 -8:45 Overview, CBM Norms (slides 1-16) TRACY8:45 – 9:30 Use of norms/IDM (slides 17-47) TINA9:30 -9:45 Eligibility (slides 48-53) TINABREAK10:00 -11:30 DIBELS (slides 54- ) TRACYLUNCH12:45-1:15 DIBELS (slides -110) TRACY1:15 -2:15 Math (slides ) TINA2:25 – 3:30 WL (slides ) TRACY3:30- 4:00 Resources/Questions (slides 147) TINA
4 Iowa Core Curriculum and Instructional Decision Making “IDM” ScreeningSupplementalIntensiveNote: Some of the information you will be hearing today will refer to “instructional decision making”. We know you have not yet had the IDM/ICC training, so we will try to help you make connections about how CBM relates to ICC and instructional decision making process for the purposes of today’s training information. You will be receiving more information about ICC in the future.For today’s purposes, the key points are:There are 3 Levels of support all school systems should be working to have in place1. screening2. supplemental instruction3. intensive instructionDepending on the question you are trying to answer CBM provides different Data.- screening -->Benchmarking- Intervention at any level --> Progress Monitoring
5 Goals for TodayIncrease knowledge about the GW agency norming project and the appropriate use of the normative data.Increase knowledge of how CBM fits with Problem Solving and Prevention.Develop skills for administering and scoring CBM probes.Become more familiar with resources that are available for collecting CBM data.ENJOY our new learning.We are hoping to accomplish these goals today.These are ambitious goals, but we know that your dedication to your new job and learning the skills that will make you successful will help us accomplish them.Read goals.
6 OverviewFor a more complete overview of CBM, you are referred to the “Overview” section of the CBM norming project manual.HAND OUT CBM BINDERS.The binders we are handing out are for today’s use.Since they do not yet have your names on them, we will need to collect them from you at the end of today.Please take a moment to write your name and position on a sticky note and put it on the inside of the binder cover.Staff distribution will call you after they have had an opportunity to check them out to you.They will let you know when you can pick them up.Please refer to “Overview” section of the CBM norming project manual for more detailed information
7 Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) A set of standard simple, short-duration fluency measures of reading, written expression, and mathDynamic Indicators of Basic SkillsGeneral Outcome MeasureMeasurement of the “vital signs” of student achievement“Academic Thermometers”CBM does not refer to a specific test… it is a process of gathering information about student achievement through a set of standardized, simple fluency measures.It is a “General Outcome Measure” – which means that as a student improves in a certain area such as (reading fluency, math computation, written expression), their overall score will increase in the “basic skill” of reading, math, or writing.CBM will not provide a precise measure of the sub-skills (i.e., decoding consonant blends, multiplying double digit numbers, using adjectives and adverbs in a writing sample).CBM is not intended to be a thorough, diagnostic assessment. CBM is not a comprehensive assessment, it is only a predictive indicator.
8 CBM - CBA - CBE Curriculum Based Assessment You may have heard some other terms that have been used to describe CBM:CBA: Curriculum Based AssessmentCBE: Curriculum Based EvaluationCBM: Curriculum Based MeasurementSometimes, people use these terms interchangeably… they are not the same thing.Think of CBA as an umbrella term… with CBM and CBE falling under it.CBA is also used to describe classroom based assessments used by teachers to measure student achievement.Curriculum BasedMeasurementCBMScreening & FormativeCurriculum BasedEvaluationCBEDiagnosticGeneral CurriculumBased Assessment(Classroom-based)
9 Curriculum Based Assessment (“Umbrella” term) CBM (Shinn, Fuchs, DIBELS)Screening & Formative? “Which students are likely to have a skill deficit?”? “What is the student’s progress given this instruction?”CBE (Howell)Diagnostic? “What does this student know/not know?”? “What instructional strategy addresses this student’s skill deficit?”Need to make sure we all understand the differences between CBA, CBM and CBE...because this is something that confuses LEA staff.Think in terms of questions as much as possible. If we don't know what questions we are answering, then we shouldn't be doing the evaluation. Need to understand the question, because that is what guides the evaluation.If you think of the curriculum based assessments as a part of the IDM process, you can see how CBM relates to the “screening” cycle by answering the question “Which students have skill deficits?”CBM relates to the supplemental cycle being used as formative assessment (progress monitoring) by helping to answer the question “What is the student’s progress given the instruction he/she is receiving?”CBE is evaluative and therefore diagnostic in nature and helps to answer more specific questions such as “What does the student know? Not know?” and “What instructional strategies will address the student’s skill deficit?” CBM is used as a part of the CBE process.CBA…also includes classroom assessments such as formative assessment
10 Grant Wood AEA Norming Project 2004-05 200 students per grade levelRandomly selected30 of 33 public school districts participated, all private and parochial schoolsThis is a very brief summary of the Norming project completed during the 04'-05 school year.70 “normers” assessed 200 students per grade level in 31 of the 33 school districts served by Grant Wood AEA.Some of your team mates may have been involved in the original norming project and would be a good resource for you.The students were randomly selected.The same students were assessed in the Fall, Winter and Spring.
11 GWAEA Norming Project: Academic Areas Assessed ReadingEarly literacy skills (DIBELS) (K,1st, Fall-2nd)Initial sound fluency (ISF)Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)Oral Reading Fluency (ORF))1st (Spring) - 6th : DIBELS7th -11th- : Jamestown ReadersThese are the areas evaluated and the materials used to develop the norms.The Dibels K-6 will no longer be used. We can still use the 7-11 Jamestown norms. Some special education teachers may still be using the Dibels 6th version. And will switch over at the time of annual review.Show copy of the norm book: You can't use any of the Dibels K-6 (indicate in the norms book so they will be familiar).Black it out or put a sticky note as a reminder. NEVER use this norm booklet for DIBELs 6th edition!
12 Academic Areas Assessed, cont. Written Expression (1st -11th)Total Words Written (TWW)Correct Word Sequences (CWS)Continued….
13 Concepts: (K-1st) (Rote Counting, Number ID) MathConcepts: (K-1st) (Rote Counting, Number ID)Computation: (1st-8th) (Fuchs and Fuchs, Blackline Masters)Applications: (2nd -6th) (Fuchs and Fuchs, Blackline Masters)Applications: (7th – 11th ) Retired NAEP questions.(see p.2 & 3 of norms booklet)
14 Using the CBM norms Screening Formative/Progress Monitoring Identification of students who are at-risk for academic deficitsFormative/Progress MonitoringMeasuring student growth over timeMeasuring student progress during supplemental or intensive instructionCBM has limited diagnostic use…CBE is used as diagnostic assessment.DIBELS NEXT allows for more diagnostic/formative assessmentCBM norms can be used throughout the problem solving process---DIBELS NEXT now has diagnostic and formative data entry which allows for more diagnostic interpretation for problem analysis.For screening purposes in core instructionFor formative assessment or progress monitoring in the supplemental and intensive cycles.
15 CBM and Eligibility Appropriate Use Inappropriate Use Evidence of resistance to intervention/lack of educational progressEvidence of significant discrepancy from peersALWAYS used as part of the convergence of data (ICEL/RIOT, etc.)Inappropriate UseA “cut score” that automatically determines eligibilityIn isolation, out of the context of the broader problem solving processWhen it comes to using CBM as a part of eligibility discussions, there are appropriate and inappropriate ways to use it.It is appropriate to use CBM to measure a student’s progress during an intervention in order to gather data to determine the student’s response to the instruction and to make decisions about what to do next.It is appropriate to use CBM as “1” piece of data that shows discrepancy from peers (when the data has been collected and a 'trend' is reported rather than one score, because this takes into account a student's potential variability.It is NOT okay to use CBM as a “cut score” or to use it all by itself to determine eligibility for special education.REMEMBER: Eligibility/Problem solving/ Iowa core all require that a convergence of data is used to make eligibility decisions… CBM is ONE piece of data…Best practice would suggest that the higher the stakes of the decision… the more data that is needed to be sure that you are doing the right thing for the student.
16 Orientation to Norm Tables *** HAND OUT NORMS TABLES***Today… right now… you will be receiving the norms booklets.
17 Norm Tables: Fall, Winter, Spring Complete listing of all scores and percentile ranks printed in a condensed format.Comparing Scores and Percentiles:Locate raw scores in norms tablesLocate percentile in norms tablesLocate average range of grade level peers (25th percentile – 75th percentile)*** Make sure everyone has a copy of the norms***Turn to grade 4 section of the booklet.•Notice fall, winter, spring•The columns on the far left and far right are percentile ranks.•The subtest headings are at the top of each of the other columns (ie: CWPM, Math Computation, Math Application, Total Words Written… etc.) The abbreviations are at the bottom of each page.The scores under each of these headings are raw scores.Notice the black arrows at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile ranks. The average range for each grade level is the scores indicated that fall between the 25th and the 75th percentile.***Please take a few minutes to look this over***Reminder: The DIBELs Norms provided in the Norms Binder should NOT be used with DIBELS NEXT. The DIBELS norm in the norm manual were developed on version 6 which is different than DIBELS NEXT
18 Grade Level Box Plot Graphs Box plot graphs illustrating student performance for each subtest.90th Percentile10th Percentile75th PercentileNow turn to the next blue divider page in the booklet.This is an example of a “BOX PLOT GRAPH”. The top line indicates the 90th percentile, etc…..The box plot graphs will show student performance for each subtest at each grade level.The box plot graphs provide a nice visual to use with teachers and parents.50th Percentile25th percentile10th Percentile
19 Median Growth Rate per Week Chart Table with median growth rate per weekFall → Winter = 12 weeksWinter →Spring = 14 weeksTurn to the last blue divider in the booklet. This is the “median growth rate per week” charts.Example:Let’s take a look at 4th grade CWPM(oral reading fluency): These numbers show how much growth the typical 4th grade student (median score) makes over the course of the school year--- between Fall and Winter assessments, and between Winter and Spring assessments.This information can be helpful when setting instructional goals for students. However, the rate of aquisition scores are based on core instruction. When setting a goal for intensive plans or special education the rate of aquisition should be set higher due to addtional instruction that is provided. Also the rate of aquisition needs to keep in mind the need to close the gap with peers.IF they ask:The possible reasons for “no change” or “negative” growth rate:(For example grade 6 Winter to Spring= -.14)The norm group average data actually went down for a variety of possible reasons. Do not set a goal based on negative growth rate.RatMay be related to the difficulty of the passage at that grade level.Students may “top out” at a certain level… ie: fluency… you can only read so fast and you have to hit a ceiling.Sometimes students slip a little on a specific skill if it is not the focus of instruction at the time of the assessment. (ie: math computation).
20 Who needs additional instruction? ScreeningNow that you are somewhat familiar with the norms tables… we are going to look at how CBM relates to the screening level of the IDM process.Remember to think in terms of specific questions whenever possible…For example: Do my Kindergarten students have a beginning understanding of phonological awareness?Not, can my students read?At the screening level, we are trying to determine WHO might need differentiated core instruction or instruction in addition to core.Who needs additional instruction?
21 CBM used as screening assessment… Determine instructional effectivenessIdentify the students who are at risk for basic academic deficitsPrioritize which students may require additional, in-depth diagnostic assessment“Double check” teacher referral (Problem Validation)CBM used as screening assessment can help you..Identify the students who are at risk for academic deficits.Determine if the core instruction is effective in teaching a particular academic skill. For example: if you administer a fluency probe to a classroom of students and a large %age of them achieve a very low score, you should consider whether there need to be some instructional changes in the core material being taught.Prioritize which students may need more in depth academic assessment and/or a more intensive instructional plan.Help with “double checking” teacher referral.
22 Accessing District Screening Data All districts have screening data…we should help them use itDIBELS, other reading fluencyReading InventoriesITBS/ITED, MAP (NWEA)District-developed assessments in math or written languageContinue to examine district data in conjunction with new AEA CBM normsJust a note:All districts have data that could be considered “screening data”.District data should be used ALONG WITH CBM norms as a way to look at the needs of the students.It is important to compare “apples to apples” when looking at data.CBM norms data DOES NOT replace district data, but it can be useful along with the district data for helping with the decision making process.
23 Comparing district data with Agency CBM norms ? My district already administers reading fluency probes…can I use AEA norms to help me interpret that data?Can be done…However…Make sure districts are using standardized administration that matches AEA CBMTime limits, directions, probesDIBELS likely most consistentA good question is: My district already administers reading fluency probes… Can I use the AEA norms to interpret that data?The answer is… it depends.It can be done IF the district is using the same standardized administration and probes that was used when collecting the AEA normative data.The time limits, directions and scoring method MUST be the same in order to make comparisons between scores. You must compare “apples to apples”.
24 Screening: District/Building Level If…LEA wants to implement supplemental instruction across grade levels or classrooms…but doesn’t know which kids should be includedBuilding is adding instruction to core (for example, reading fluency) and wants to examine the effects of this additional instructionHere are some examples of how CBM could be used as a screening assessment at the building or district level.The first one answers the question “WHO?” should be included in supplemental instruction.The second one answers the question “HOW?” is the instruction impacting student achievement.
25 Screening: Classroom/Small Group Level If…A teacher needs to identify which students need additional instruction in a classroomA teacher is concerned about a small group of students and wants to prioritize additional resourcesA teacher wants to determine if their core instruction is adequate (at least 80% percent of class is proficient)An example of how CBM could be used as a screening tool at a classroom level or small group level:A teacher comes to you and wants help identifying which students in his/her classroom need additional assistance.A teacher has a concern about a small group of student in his/her classroom and needs some data to help make a decision about how to prioritize additional resources that are available in the building.ORA teacher comes to you and wants some data that will show how effective his/her instruction is at meeting the needs of most of the students in the classroom. Is asking the question: “Am I reaching most of my students with what I am teaching in core?”
26 Screening: Individual Level If…a teacher is concerned about a particular studenta student has significantly low scores on district-wide assessment (ITBS/ITED, etc.) and you want to collect additional datayou want to re-screen a student who has received supplemental or intensive instruction in the pastyou want to quickly screen new students who move into the buildingExamples of how CBM could be used at a screening level with individual students: 1)A teacher comes to you with a concern about a particular student and wants some more data to help make a decision about what to do next. 2) A student scores really low on the district wide assessment and you want to collect more data to verify whether or not there is a skill deficit. 3) Maybe a student has received supplemental or intensive instruction in the past and had returned to core only and is coming up as a concern again and you want to gather some data to re-evaluate the students instructional needs. 4) New student has moved into your district from somewhere else… CBM is a quick way to screen his/her basic skills.5)
27 Screening: Activity If… Discuss at your table how you have used CBMs as part of screening, and how you used the data5 minutesNew student has moved into your district from somewhere else… CBM is a quick way to screen his/her basic skills.
29 Reading DIBELS (K-6) Jamestown Timed Readings (7-11) First Sound FluencyLetter Naming FluencyPhoneme Segmentation FluencyNonsense Word FluencyOral Reading FluencyDAZE Jamestown Timed Readings (7-11)These are the areas that can be assessed using DIBELS.Jamestown Timed Readings can be used to assess ORF with students in middle school and high school. The first book of probes is at a 4th grade reading level and the probes go up through and beyond high school level.
30 Reading Released in 2010DIBELS NEXT is newly revised. Developed with 90 schools and 25,000 students throughout the united states.They are brief powerful indicators found to be indicators of foundational early literacy skills.Used for:Quick and efficientuniversal screening, benchmarking, and progress monitoring students who are at risk or poorly performing.Identifies student who need intervention and how effective intervention support is being.Used to help teachers target key literacy skills. Can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a schools system of instructional support.DIBELs measures are standardized, so everyone must administer and score in the exact same manner to ensure that the research on the reliability and validity remains high.
31 DIBELS Assessment Flow Chart In your packet of DIBELs training information you should have this handout.This flowchart helps in decision making when deciding which assessment to use when trying to answer specific reading related questions.Remember the 5 pilars of literacy.phonological awarenessphonicsfluencyvocabularycomprehensionPlease see pages 3 and 5 of the dibels assessment manual for further explanation of this model.The model in Figure 1.1 shows the relationships among the basic early literacy skills, the DIBELS Next measures, and the timeline for achieving benchmark goals for each measure. The basic early literacy skills are represented by the rounded boxes at the top of the figure (e.g., phonemic awareness, phonics). The arrows connecting the rounded boxes show how the early literacy skills relate to one another and lead to reading comprehension. The arrows from the rounded boxes to the boxes in the middle level show the linkage between the basic early literacy skills and the DIBELS Next measures. The lines between the DIBELS Next measures and the timeline at the bottom indicate the target time of the benchmark goals for that measure.In this model, (a) automaticity with the code (i.e., accurate and fluent reading of connected text) in combination with (b) vocabulary and language skills provide a necessary foundation for learning reading comprehension skills. If the student does not have adequate skills in either area, the development of reading comprehension skills is likely to be compromised.
32 DIBELS Benchmark Timeline When using DIBELS as part of universal screening recommendations have been made as to when specific assessment should and should not be given. When students are below grade level you may need to progress monitor them using below level probes.For example a first grade student in the spring who is receiving intensive instruction focusing on phonological awareness, would need PFS and/or FSF.
33 Components of a DIBEL's Probe TimedDirectionsScoreScoring RulesRemindersWait RuleDiscontinue RulePen or PencilClipboardStop watch or TimerEach DIBELS Benchmarking packet has the requiired components for that specific measure discussed.Hand out K and 1st Benchmarking PacketsDIBEL's probes may have these components.Administration Time: The length of time for which the measure is administered, after the assessor has given directions and started the stopwatch. Administration Schedule: The grades and times of year in which the measure is administered for benchmark assessment. • Administration Directions: The specific procedures to follow when administering the measure, as well as the script to say to the student. • When to Start the Stopwatch: The point at which the stopwatch should be started for the measure. • Score: The description of the reported score. • Scoring Rules: Detailed marking and scoring procedures. • Reminders: Prompts that can be given under certain circumstances. Some prompts can only be given once, others can be given as often as needed. • Wait Rule: A rule for how long the student is allowed to hesitate on an item before the next item is presented or the student is directed to proceed. • Discontinue Rule: A rule for discontinuing the measure if the student is unable to perform the task.In order to meet these components you will need:Pen or PencilClipboardStop watch or Timer
34 Additional Components of a DIBEL's Probe Quiet Testing environmentEncouragementModeling and PracticeRepeating directionsArticulation and DialectDo not audio tapeTests should be given in a quiet environment, with very careful attention to time with no encouragement.Talk about bullet pointsEncouragement can invalidate the results. Comments like "you are trying hard" are fine, but comments indicating whether a student is correct or wrong are not. Most measures begin with the assessor modeling the activityYou may repeat directions but do not stop the timer.Each measure has a discontinue ruleStudents are never penalized for articulation and dialect differences.
35 DIBEL's Performance Criteria BenchmarksAvailable in August 2010PredictiveDIBELs benchmarks are available at in August 2010.They are research supported target that help us determine whether a students reading progress is adequate. If a student meets a benchmark then they are likely on track. Benchmarks are PREDICTIVEStudents who score below the benchmark are at risk of reading difficulties and are unlikely to meet reading goals without receiving additional targeted instruction.Intensive instruction refers to interventions that are different than what they are already getting and different from the core curriculum or supplemental support. This support is significant.Strategic instruction is between Benchmark goals and Intensive cut-offs. Students in this range are harder to predict whether they are on track and may need some additional support.
36 DIBEL's Time Requirements Here are the time requirements needed when giving the different DIBEL's measures.
37 First Sound Fluency(FSF) Phonological AwarenessKindergarten: Fall & WinterThe assessor will say a series of words one at a time to the student and ask the student to say the first sound in the word.students receive 2 points for saying the initial phoneme of a word or group of sounds. Students receive 1 point for saying the initial consonant blend, consonant plus vowel, or consonant blend plus vowel. Score is total points in 1 minute What is phonemic awareness? Phonemic awareness is the explicit awareness that spoken wordsare made up of individual sounds or phonemes. A phoneme is the smallest sound unit into which speech can be divided that makes a difference to the meaning of the word (National Reading Panel, 2000). Phonemic awareness involves the ability to attend to and manipulate these phonemes in spoken words. For example, the knowledge that the word “dog” begins with the sound /d/ is phonemic awareness. The ability to replace the /d/ sound at the beginning of “dog” with the /h/ sound to make the word “hog” is also phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness is an auditory skill that does not require knowledge of the letters of the alphabet or letter-sound knowledge, thus it is not the same as phonics. A convergence of research on the acquisition of reading skills has demonstrated that phonemic awareness is highly predictive of success in learning to read (Gillon, 2004; Stahl & Murray, 2006). Additionally, effective instruction in phonemic awareness leads to significant differences in reading achievement (Ehri, 2004; National Reading Panel, 2000). Most reading researchers advocate that phonemic awareness be purposefully and explicitly taught as part of a comprehensive instructional program in reading and writing.First sound Fluency is a new measure replacing Initial Sound Fluency.This information is on page 38 of your DIBELS Manual.You may get questions in your buildings about Initial Sound Fluency, which is no longer a valid measure and should no longer be used.Please open your Kindergarten Benchmarking Packet to FSF.FSF examines whether students can isolate and identify the first phoneme in a word which is an indicator of phonological skill. FSF is a pre-requisite or lower skill than segmenting sounds and manipulating sounds. This assessment should be gven in the fall and winter of Kindergarten when benchmarking or to low performing students.The assessor will say a series of words one at a time to the student and ask the student to say the first sound in the word.- students receive 2 points fo rsaying the initial phoneme of a word or group of sounds. Students receive 1 point for saying the initial consonant blend, consonant plus vowel, or consonant blend plus vowel. The total score is the the number of 1 and 2 point responses a student gets in 1 minute.This is a phonological awareness task. It assess how well a student can hear and identify sounds at the beginning of words.There will be three practice items where you will model for the student the task, before starting the measure with a student.The FSF benchmarking materials are in your CBM materials binder.On 3 of the questions, you will produce the sound and the student will identify the picture.On one of the questions, you will ask the student to produce the initial sound that you have produced.
38 FSF: Materials You will need: FSF Scoring Booklet (Benchmark or Progress Monitoring)Pencil/PenClipboardStop WatchYou will need the FSF Scoring BookletPencil/PenClipboardStop Watchwhen giving this measure.
39 FSF: Directions Example: Listen to me say this word, “man.” The first sound that you hear in the word “man” is /mmm/. Listen. /mmm/. “Man.” What is the first sound you hear in the word “man”?Student gives correct response: Good. /mmm/ is the first sound in “man.”Student gives any other response:/mmm/ is the first sound you hear in the word “man.” Listen. /mmm/. “Man.” Say it with me./mmm/. Let’s try it again. What is the first sound you hear in the word“man”?Demonstrate the example.
40 FSF: AdministrationAfter administering the 3 practice samples say, "Now I am going to say more words. You tell me the first sound you hear in the word.Proceed with standardized directions (see examiner copy) and timing.After you have demonstrated the examples to the student, begin the assessment.Say the first word and start your stopwatch.During the testing: • Present the words to the student one at a time by reading down the column of words.• As soon as the student finishes saying the initial sound/sounds in the word, say the next word promptly and clearly.
41 FSF: Timing (VERY Important) After reading the directions begin your stopwatch and time the student for 1 minute. At the end of 1 minute stop presenting words to the student.presenting words to theAfter reading the directions begin your stopw • Continue to say the words one at a time and score the student’s responses for 1 minute. • At the end of 1 minute, stop presenting the words. Do not score any student responses after 1 minute. If the student completes the assessment before 1 minute, stop testing and record the score obtained. Scores are not prorated. DIBELS Next Assessment Manual DIBELS First Sound Fluency (FSF) Immediately after testing: • Reset the stopwatch for the next measure.atch and time the student for 1 minute. At the end of 1 minute stop presenting words to the student.student.
42 FSF: ScoringThe student receives 2 points for correctly identifying the initial phoneme in isolation and 1 point for identifying the correct initial sounds (consonant blend, consonant plus vowel, or consonant blend plus vowel).• Score the student’s responses by circling the corresponding sound or group of sounds on the scoring page. Mark a slash (/) through the zero for no response or for an incorrect response.• Make a note in the scoring booklet about any patterns in student responses that were not captured by the marking procedures.
43 FSF: Scoring Example4. At a later time (i.e., shortly after the testing when you are no longer with the student) compute the final score: • Add the correct responses in the 2-point column. Multiply the number of responses from the 2-point column by two and record the total in the space provided. • Add the correct responses in the 1-point column and record the total in the space provided. • Add the two totals from each column together and record the total score in the space provided. • Record the score on the front of the scoring book
44 FSF: Prompt & Discontinue Rule Wait Rule: Wait 3 seconds for the student to respond.Reminders: Can be given as often as neededDiscontinue: Score of 0 on first 5 questions, discontinue and give a score of 0 on the cover page.Names Letter vs. saying a soundSay, "Remember to tell me the first sound in the word, not the letter name."A few things to remember.Wait 3 seconds for the student to respond. If the student does not respond within 3 seconds on a word, mark a slash ( ) through the zero and say the next word.If you think the student may have forgotten the task (e.g., the student stops responding because he or she has clearly forgotten the task, repeats the word, claps the sounds, or says a rhyming word), say Remember to tell me the first sound that you hear in the word. Immediately say the next word. This reminder may be given as often as needed.If the student scores 0 on the first 5 items, discontinue this task and give a score of 0.If the student names the letter rather than saying a sound, prompt them by saying,
45 FSF: Additional Scoring Rules Child responds with initial blend vs. initial soundScore as 1Child responds with another sound in word or says whole word vs. initial soundScore as 0Be careful of vowels (short must be short, long must be long)If the student produces an initial blend and not the initial sound, score as 1.If the student says another sound in the word or repeats the whole word, score as 0.When scoring, be alert to vowel sounds… short vowels must be produced as short vowels, long vowels must be pronounced as long vowels in order for the student to receive a score of 1.
46 FSF: Additional Scoring Rules (Continued) Schwa sounds (/u/) added to first sound- not counted as an errorArticulation difficultyStudent is not penalizedIn the case of SEVERE articulation difficulties (student is unintelligible), note and move on.Review Pronunciation GuideSchwa sounds (/u/) added to consonants are not counted as errors. Some phonemes (e.g., voice phonemes such as /g/ or /b/) cannot be pronounced in isolation without a vowel, and some early learning of sounds includes the schwa.Students are not penalized for articulation difficulties. If a student is unintelligible, note this and move on.Students are not penalized for differences in pronunciation due to dialect, articulation delays or impairments, or for speaking a first language other than English. It is common for preschool and kindergarten children to say /ch/ for /tr/ and /j/ for /dr/. On FSF, these substitutions are considered articulation errors and are scored as correct.There is a “Pronunciation Guide” in the DIBELS information.
47 FSF Scoring: General Rule When in doubt: Record student’s response verbatim and review specific rules later.This is a good rule of thumb. If you are unsure about how to score a student’s response, record the response verbatim and then review the socring rules later.
48 The following are examples of how to score commonly occurring responses on FSF. Please pay attention to the notes included with the examples as they provide scoring explanations and indicate variations and nuances related to the scoring. The examples do not encompass all possible responses. If in doubt about how to score a student response, refer to the scoring rules above.
52 Modeling Scoring Practice Discussion Review Together FSF Practice ActivityModelingScoring PracticeDiscussionReview TogetherWe will now model an assessment situation for you. We will now hand out a Practice Scoring Sheet.Hand out Appendix 2 of DIBELs Manual page 103.One of us will be the assessor and one of us will be the student. Please follow along and record your answers on your record sheets. You may also wish to follow along with a DIBELS NEXT Kindergarten Scoring Booklet for understanding the directions.After modeling the assessment for you, you will have time to score independently and then discuss your scores with your table. We will review with everyone together at the end.Start Modeling.
53 Practice with a partner You will have 2 minutes each. FSF Practice ActivityPractice with a partner You will have 2 minutes each.We would like for you to have an opportunity now to practice once with a partner administering the test. One of you will read the verbatim administration directions and the other person will act as a student. We will rotate partners after 2 minutes.Start.5 minutesHand out answer while participants practice.
54 Letter Naming FluencyDoes not correspond to one of the “Big 5” ideas, but provides a measure of riskKindergarten: Fall, Winter, SpringFirst Grade: FallStudents are presented with a page of upper- and lower-case letters arranged in random order and are asked to name as many letters as they can.What is letter naming? To read an alphabetic writing system such as English, students must be able to recognize letters, name the letters, and associate the letters with their corresponding sounds (Troia, 2004). However, letter naming is not one of the five core components of early literacy. Many students, though not all, enter kindergarten with some knowledge of letter names. Many can sing the alphabet song and can recite the names of the letters in a sequence. Surrounded by environmental print, many students can easily recognize the letter shapes and print cues of their favorite stores or foods. All these experiences provide an entry point to the printed word. The pragmatic implication of having learned letter names through rhythm and song is that teaching the visual representation for each letter follows easily and almost naturally. The value of recognizing environmental print is that students begin to understand that print has meaning. The importance of knowing letter names in mastering the alphabetic principle is ambiguous because the skill of knowing the alphabet letter names is not essential to reading outcomes. Nevertheless, knowledge of letter names in kindergarten is a strong and robust predictor of later reading performance (Adams, 1990), and has an enduring relationship with phonological awareness (Kaminski & Good, 1996; Scarborough, 1998; Stahl & Murray, 1994; Wagner et al., 1994).this information is on page 47 of the DIBELS Assessment Manual.The next assessment in DIBELS is letter naming fluency.This subtest does not correspond to one of the “Big 5” reading concepts, but it does provide a measure of determining which students may be at risk of reading difficulties.“Big 5” = 1. fluency2. vocabulary3. comprehension4. phonemic awareness5. phonicsThis assessment is administered to Kdg. Students in the Fall, Winter and Spring and to 1st grade students in the Fall.Students are given a page of upper and lower case letters arranged in random order and instructed to name as many as they can in one minute.This is a simple subtest to administer.
55 LNF: DirectionsI am going to show you some letters. I want you to point to each letter and say its name. (Put the page of letters in front of the student.) Start here (point to the first letter at the top of the page.) Go this way (sweep your finger across the first two rows of letters) and say each letter name. Put your finger under the first letter (point). Ready, begin.The directions are as follows:Please follow along in your Kindergarten Benchmarking BookletRead the slide.
56 LNF: Administration & Timing Start stopwatch after you say begin.Prompt: If student provides the letter sound rather than the letter name, say “Say the letter name, not its sound." (other prompts listed on pg 5 in the K scorer's booklet)Stop stopwatch at 1 minute and say “Stop”.You will begin the timer as soon as the student provides the first letter.If the student says the letter sound rather than the letter name, give the prompt: “Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes.” You may only use this prompt one time.Go through the remiinders on pg 5 of K booklet.At the end of one minute, stop the timer and say “STOP”.
57 LNF: Scoring Score is total # of correct letters in one minute. Discontinue Rule: If the student does not get any correct letter names within the first row (10 letters), discontinue and record a score of 0.3 second rule: If student hesitates for 3 seconds, mark a slash through the letter and say the correct letter name.The score for this assessment is the total # of correct letters identified in one minute.You may discontinue the test if the student does not get any correct letter names within the first 10 letters (first row). If this happens, discontinue the test and score a 0.There is a 3 second rule:If student hesitates for 3 seconds, mark a slash through the letter and say the correct letter name.
58 LNF: Additional Scoring Rules Self-correct within 3 secondsScore as 1Self- correct after 3 secondsScore for that letter remains 0Omissions (except for entire row)Score as 0Similar shaped font exception (L and i)If the student says the wrong letter name, but then corrects within 3 seconds, score as 1.If the student self corrects after 3 seconds, count as 0. This is a fluency task.Any omissions are scored 0, unless the student skips an entire row ( and this will happen). If this happens, cross out the row and do not count it in the total score.Similar shaped letters are scored as 1.
59 LNF: Additional Scoring Rules (Continued) Articulation and DialectDo not penalizeOmission of entire rowDo not count row in scoringAgain articulation and dialect are not penalized.Entire rows are not counted in scoring.
61 Practice Activity with Partner Letter Naming FluencyWe will not be practicing this measure.Practice Activity with Partner
62 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Phonological AwarenessKindergarten: Winter & SpringFirst Grade: FallExaminer orally presents words of 3 or 4 phonemes. The student verbally produces the individual phonemes for the word.Materials: scoring booklet, stopwatch, pen/pencil, clipboard.Another indicator of Phonemic awareness is PSF, which is a more advanced phonological skill indicator than FSF.PSF is an assessment that measures phonological awareness.It is administered to Kdg. students in the Winter and Spring and 1st graders in the Fall.You will be presenting words orally to students.The words have 3 or 4 phonemes.The student will then verbally produce the phonemes they hear in the words presented.
63 PSF: Directions"We are going to say the sounds in words. Listen to me say all the sounds in the word "fan." /f/ /a/ /n/. Listen to another word, (pause) "jump." /j/ /u/ /m/ /p/. Your turn. Say all the sounds in "soap."Correct Response: "Very good saying all the sounds in "soap." At this point, begin testing. Any Other Response: "I said "soap" so you say /s/ /oa/ /p/. Your turn. Say all the sounds in "soap."Correct response - say "good" and begin testing.Incorrect response - say "okay" and begin testing.Here are the directions. These are printed in the scorer's administration benchmark booklet (pg 12, K booklet) and in Chapter 7 of the DIBELS NEXT manual.
64 PSF: Administration & Timing Begin testing, say: "I am going to say more words. I'll say the word and you say all the sounds in the word."After saying first word, start your stopwatch.3 second rule: If the student does not say a sound segment after 3 seconds, give next word and score the “unsaid” segments as 0.As soon as the student finishes saying the sound, or 3 seconds have elapsed, say the next word promptly and clearly.At the end of 1 minute, stop presenting words and scoring further responses.After you say the first word, begin timing.If the student does not respond after 3 seconds have passed, score that item as 0 and give the next word.Be sure to say the words promptly and clearly.At the end of one minute, stop presenting the words.Record the score.
65 PSF: Scoring Discontinue Rule General Scoring Rule Recording Responses If a student has not given any sound segments correctly in the first 5 words, discontinue the task and record a score of zero.General Scoring RuleStudents receive 1 point for every different, correct, part of the word.Recording ResponsesUse underline for correct and slash for incorrect If unsure, record student's response verbatim and review rules following assessment.Reminders - each allowed 1 time onlyIf student spells the word - "Say the sounds in the word" if repeats the word say - "Remember to say all the sounds in the word."See pg 12 of bookletScoring for PSF: (pg 55) of the DIBELS Next Manual.If the student has scored 0 on all of the first 5 words, discontinue the task. Record a total score of 0.Students receive 1 point for every different, correct, part of the word.This means that each segment of each word is worth 1 point.Listen very carefully to the student’s response so that you can hear each part of the word the student is producing.To help with keeping track of the correct responses during the administration of this test, underline the correct student responses and slash the incorrect responses. This will make it much easier to tally the score at the end of the test.if you have questions about how a student is pronouncing the segments, record the response verbatim and review the scoring rules later.No segmentation: The 1st time a student just repeats the word remind the student "Remember to say all the sounds in the word." This prompt can only be given once. If students do not segment the word and they only repeat the word back to you, score as 0. This is a segmentation assessment, you are trying to determine the student’s segmentation abilities.
67 1.The student only gets credit for the sounds, combinations of sounds. 2.Sometimes a student will repeat segments. The student gets credit as long as each segment is a different, correct part of the word. This is uncommon.
68 1. Added sounds are ignored if they are separated from other sounds. 2. Schwa sounds (/u/) added to a sounds are not counted as errors.3. Students receive full credit for elongated sounds. Sometimes students are taught to do this. You'll need to judge whether the student does demonstrate awareness of the individual sounds.Make a note is a student consistently does any of these three things.
69 There is no penalty for articulation errors or dialect differences There is no penalty for articulation errors or dialect differences. You may want to visit with the SLP assigned to your school to find out if any student has a significant speech issue.
70 PSF: Recording Errors Slash through incorrect sound segments Circle words student simple repeats Leave omitted sounds blank.Write "sc" over self corrections occuring within 3 seconds.1. Sound is judged in entirety. example = sit. /s/ /if/ /t/. The middle segment is incorrect as there is no /f/ sound in the word sit.2. However, if a student says one of the individual phonemes then repeats the word, the student does receive credit for the individual segment. Underline the segment AND circle the word. Example /f/ /flag/ - student gets credit for the /f/Again: if you have questions about how a student is pronouncing the segments, record the response verbatim and review the scoring rules later.
76 PSF:Response Patterns These are the response pattern suggestions that follow the PSF benchmark assessments in the scoring booklet. Completing this section could provide helpful information for instructional/intervation planning.
77 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Any questions? We have an activity for you to practice scoring PSF. Hand out Page 105 Activity. Go back to slide 75 - leave up as an example. Discussion at tables. Hand out answers keys afterward.Practice Activity with Partner
78 Nonsense Word Fluency Alphabetic Principle (phonetic skills) Kindergarten: Winter & SpringFirst Grade: Fall, Winter & SpringSecond Grade: FallStudent is presented a sheet of paper with randomly ordered VC and CVC nonsense words and asked to produce verbally the individual letter sound of each letter or read the whole word.What are the alphabetic principle and basic phonics? In order for students to learn how to read in an alphabetic writing system, they must first be able to map individual speech sounds to symbols. In the case of written English, these symbols are letters. Unlocking the reading code begins when associations are made between letters and sounds. The alphabetic principle is comprised of two parts: • Alphabetic Understanding: Knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and the understanding that letters represent sounds in spoken words. • Phonological Recoding: The use of alphabetic understanding to decode or read unknown words. Phonics is the system of letter-sound relationships that is the foundation for decoding words in print. Phonics skills must be explicitly taught and practiced (Liberman & Liberman, 1990; Ehri, 1991). A student’s understanding of the alphabetic principle and basic phonics begins first by using letter-sound correspondences to segment and then blend simple CVC words, or to retrieve these correspondences to spell a word. It is the automaticity with the sequences of letter sounds comprising frequent words and spelling patterns that enables skillful readers to process text quickly and easily (Adams, 1990). Development of the alphabetic principle and basic phonics is essential for decoding unknown words (Adams, 1990; Ehri, 2002), and for developing the sight word vocabulary necessary for fluent reading (Share, 1995; Share & Stanovich, 1995).This information can be found on page 65 of your DIBELS Assessment Manual.Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) is an assessment of the alphabetic principle… phonetic skills.It is administered to Kdg. students in the Winter and Spring and to 1st graders in the Fall, Winter and Spring and to 2nd grade students in the Fall.I have used this subtest often to monitor progress with students who are receiving supplemental and/or intensive instruction on letter sound blending, who are at the beginning stages of reading words.On this task, students are presented with a sheet of paper that has randomly listed VC (vowel-consonant) and CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) nonsense words. They are instructed to read the whole word or the letter sounds in each word.Open your Kindergarten DIBELS NEXT Benchmarking Booklet to NWF.
79 NWF: DirectionsWe are going to read some make-believe words. Listen. the word is "sog." (Run your finger under the word as you say it.) The sounds are /s/ /o/ /g/ (point to each letter). Your turn. Read this make-believe word (point to the word "mip"). If you can't read the whole word, tell me any sounds you know.Here are the directions.You will show the student the “sog-mip" and read the directions to him/her.Some times students will give whole words and other times will do sound by sound. Either is OK.
80 NWF: Directions (Continued) Correct Response (Whole word): Very good reading the word "mip" Correct Response (Letter sounds): Very good /m/ /i/ /p/ (point to each letter) or "mip" (run your finger under the word as you say it.)Incorrect response: Listen. /m/ /i/ /p/ or "mip". (Run your finger under the letters as you say the sounds.) Your turn. Read this make-believe word. (Point to the word "mip") If you can't read the whole word, tell me any sounds you know.Note that depending on the response the child gives 'correct word or correct sounds' your response as the examiner varies. This is slightly different from the version 6.
81 NWF: AdministrationBegin testing. I would like you to read more make-believe words. Do your best reading. If you can't read the whole word, tell me any sounds you know. (Place the student copy in front of the student.) Put your finger under the first word. Ready, begin.Here are the rest of the directions.
82 NWF: Timing & Discontinue Rule Start stopwatch after saying “Begin.”Stop stopwatch at 1 minute and say, “Stop”If the student does not get any sounds correct in first row, discontinue and record a score of 0.Begin timing after you say “Ready, begin.”When 1 minute has passed, stop the timer and say, “Stop”.Discontinue the task if the student does not get any sounds correct in the first row.
83 NWF: 3 Second Rule Sound by Sound: Score the letter sound incorrect, provide the correct letter sound.Word by Word: Score the word incorrect, provide the correct word.If providing the correct letter-sound or word does not prompt the student to continue, say "Keep going."The 3 second rule:If the student is performing the task letter by letter and he/she gets stuck on a letter, after3 seconds pronounce the letter sound and point to the next letter, say: “What sound?”If the student is performing the task as a whole word task, and gets stuck on a word, after 3 seconds, say the word, point to the next word and say, “What word?”.These prompts can be repeated as often as necessary.
84 NWF: ScoringCorrect Letter Sounds (CLS): The student recieves credit for 1 CLS for each correct letter sound read in isolation or read as part of a make-believe word.Whole Word Read (WWR): The student receives credit for 1 WWR for each whole word read correctly without first being sounded out.Scoring: Underline correct letter sounds and slash incorrect letter sounds.Student recieves credit for 1 CLS for each correct letter sound read in isolation or as part of a make believe word. Whole word read WWR also recieves 1 credit for each whole word read.
93 NWF: Additional Scoring Rules Partially correct words1 point for each correct soundRepeated soundsRepeated sounds counted only once (2 points max for a VC word, 3 points max for a CVC word)Incorrect sound order (sound by sound)IF student points to the correct sound as they say that sound, 1 pointOther scoring rules:Partially correct words: 1 point for each correct sound.Repeated sounds: count these only once, so 2 points for a VC word, 3 points for a CVC word.Incorrect sound order (sound by sound): IF the student points to the correct sound as they say that sound, give 1 point.
94 NWF: Additional Scoring Rules (Continued) Sound order (word by word)Blended letter sounds must be correct sound and in the correct place to receive creditInsertionsIgnoreArticulationDo not penalizeBlended sounds must be the correct sound and in the correct place to give credit.If students insert sounds into the words, ignore and score only the correct sounds.This task is given to younger children who may have some speech issues. No penalties for articulation errors.
95 NWF: Additional Scoring Rules (Continued) Self-correctWithin 3 seconds, count as correctSkip a rowDo not count that row in scoringIf a student corrects him/her self within 3 seconds, count the item as correct.If the student skips an entire row, do not count that row in the scoring… cross it out.
96 NWF: Response Patterns: Says correct sounds out of order (sound by sound)Makes random errorsSays correct sounds, does not recodeSays correct sounds, recodes out of orderSays correct sounds, recodes with incorrect sounds(s)Says correct sounds and correctly recodesDoesn't tract correctlyTries to turn nonsense words into real words Makes consistent errors on specific letter sounds(s)At the end of the task there are questions about response patterns that may be checked. This may be used when you/teacher are progress monitoring and would like information to help make instructional decisions.
97 Practice Activity with Partner Nonsense Word FluencyLet’s practice.We would like for you to have an opportunity now to practice once with a partner administering the test. One of you will read the verbatim administration directions and the other person will act as a student making the "student response errors". The other will score the response. Do this for half of the items and then switch roles. We will rotate partners after 2 minutes.Handout practice scoring sheets pg 107 of manual.Start.5 minutesHand out answer while participants practice.Discuss at your table (5 minutes)Practice Activity with Partner
98 Oral Reading FluencyAdvanced phonics, word attack, fluent reading of connected textDIBELS: Middle of 1st grade - 6th grade Jamestown Readers: 7-11 3 one minute probes, record median scoreMaterials: scoring booklet, student materials, clipboard, pen/pencil, stopwatchWords per minute - fluency and accuracy.ORF- assessing the reading skills of students. The information presented here can be found in Chapter9 of the DIBELS next Assmt manual.Dibels oral reading fluency measures provide information about a student's phonics knowledge, word attack skills and ability to read connected text fluency. Assessments given beginning in winter of 1st grade. DIBELS goes through 6th grade. Jamestown Readers used forRules apply to Jamestown & DIBELSstudents are asked to read 3 one minute reading probes. Recorders score the median score for the correct words per minute.A notation can also be made for the median number of errors.Dibels also includes a retell option to assess for reading comprehension, however this is not routinely used at school at the present time.
99 ORAL READING FLUENCY Administration & Scoring Directions: "I would like you to read a story to me. Please do your best reading. If you do not know a word, I will read the word for you. Keep reading until I say stop." ( 1 minute per probe)DO NOT READ THE TITLEGive 3 passages. Score passages immediately after administration. Tally any errors made by the student while reading.These are the directions read to students, they're located in the scoring booklets. See pg 12 in the 1st grade booklet.When beginning test - ask student to put finger under the first word. This can help with tracking.Administer 3 probes for benchmarking. Record the median score.At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket or similar mark to indicate where the student ended.It's ok to let a student finish a sentence, but only count the words read during the 1 minute time.
100 ORF informationCorrect words: Total words read - total errors (use the median score Additional informationAccuracy median words correct X 100 median words correct + median errorsMedian score of correct words per minute are recorded on the front of the benchmarking booklet.Sometimes people want an accuracy score - it's a simple percentage.
101 Important Reminders 3 second wait rule If a student stops reading and it's not a hesitation, say "keep going."If a student loses his/her place, point to the correct spot.Students are NOT penalized for differences in pronunciations due to dialect, articulation delays or impairments, or for pronunciations due to speaking a first language other than English.Pg 12, 1st grade booklet3 second wait rule - if a student does not produce the word in 3 seconds say the word, mark it incorrect. The next two reminders may be given as often as necessary.Reminder: If a student stops and it doesn't appear to be a hesitation say Keep Going.If a student loses his/her place - point it out to them. This is not the same as a tracking error where a student skips a line of text but keeps reading.Not penalized for dialect, articulation issues, ESLThese rules can be found on page 83 of the DIBELS manual.
102 Pronunciation Differences Local language norm:Example: The man washed the car. (CWR=5)read as…The man “worshed” the car. (CWR=5)Speech sound production:Example: The rabbit sniffed the carrots. (CWR=5)The “wabbit” sniffed the “carwets”. (CWR=5)
103 Scoring Considerations: Discontinue if the student does not read any words correctly in the first line of the first passage. Record “0” on the scoring sheet.If the student reads fewer than 10 words correct on the first passage, record the score on the scoring sheet and do not administer passages 2 and 3.If student finishes passage in less than 1 minute, stop and record that score.If the student does not read any words in the first row, record 0 on the scoring sheet.On the first passage, if the student reads fewer that 10 words correctly, record the score and do not administer the second and third passages.No prorating
104 Approved Accommodations 1. Enlarged print2. Use of colored overlays, filters, lighting.3. Use of assistive technology or assistive lighting devices4. Use of marker or ruler to focus attention The use of student materials that have been enlarged or with larger print for students with visual impairment (LNF, NWF, DORF, Daze)2. The use of colored overlays, filters, or lighting adjustments. (LNF, NWF, DORF, Daze) If considering overlays - you should find out if any students have colorblindness.3. The use of assistive technology, such as hearing aids and assistive listening devices, for student with hearing impairments (All)4. The use of a marker or ruler to focus students attention on the materials for students who ar not able to demonstrate their skills adequately without one. It is good practice to attempt the assessmnt first without a marker or ruler and then retest with an alternate form of the assessment using a marker or ruler if needed. (LNF, NWF, DORF, Daze)
105 Scoring Rules and Examples Scoring RulesandExamplesAbbreviations read as pronounced in converstation - Mr = mister, OCT = octoberNumerals read correctly in context of sentence, 24 - twently four NOT two-fourHyphenated words:two words if each can stand alone (part-time)one if they can't. (x-ray)
106 Scoring Rule 1: Leave blank any words the student reads correctly Scoring Rule 1: Leave blank any words the student reads correctly. Inserted words are not counted. To be counted as correct, words must be read as whole words and pronounced correctly for the context of the sentence.The following scoring information is found in the DIBELS next assmt manual beginning on pg 84To be counted as correct the entire word must be read - if segmented but not re-read as a whole word it would be marked as an error.
107 Insertions -ignored, not counted as errors. if happens frequently, it would be a good idea to note the pattern.
108 Repetitions are ignored. Put an SC to indicate self corrections especially if you've marked it incorrect. If the student SC but after 3 seconds, it is still marked incorrect. If this is common, make a note of it.
109 Proper nouns example: A student sees "Dubai" and says "Dubay"
110 Abbreviations read as pronounced in converstation - Mr = mister, OCT = october Numerals read correctly in context of sentence, 24 - twently four NOT two-fourHyphenated words:two words if each can stand alone (part-time)one if they can't. (x-ray)
116 Sentence contextdove into the ocean, read as "duv into the ocean
117 Contractions: doesn't NOT does notReversals = errors
118 ORF Response PatternsReads with appropriate phrasing, intonation/expression, and observed punctuation.Self-corrects/monitors meaningShows automaticity on re-read wordsUses effective decoding strategiesErrors preserve passage meaningErrors violate passage meaningFrequently omits words or lettersFrequently adds words or lettersFrequent errors on sight words (e.g., I, was, and, the, etc.)Frequent errors on phonetically regular words (cat, milk, etc)Frequent errors on phonetically irregular wordsSkips linesOtherResponse patterns located after the third reading passage in the scorer's manual. pg 30 in 1st grade bookletAs stated earlier, this information will be very helpful when discussion interventions and/or need for further assessment.During benchmarking - it won't be necessary to complete this for all students. It would be good practice to do this for any student that shows difficulty.
119 Time to Practice Practice Sheets - brief passage - student response -scoring practiceThere is a practice sheets in your packet - pg 109There is a brief passage followed with a possible student response. Score the student response in the scoring section according the rules we've reviewed.Feel free to work with a partner or table group.HAND OUT ANSWER KEY
120 DAZE What is Reading Comprehension? New DIBELs Assessment New DIBELs Assessment Measures Reading Comprehension 3rd grade through 6th gradeScore is the total correct words in 3 minutes minus half the number of incorrect words.The only group adminsitered DIBELS NEXT measureMaterials: Student Worksheets, Pen/Pencil, Daze Benchmark Assessment Administration Directions and Scoring Keys, and Clipboard and stopwatch. Early reading acquisition is a large, complex linguistic task, whereby students gain knowledge about speech sounds, print rules, and strategies for decoding words. Reading comprehension is equally large and complex and best understood as an interactive process between the reader’s skills and context. Reading comprehension is the ability to understand what is read, and is demonstrated by making inferences, getting the gist, filling in the gaps, and understanding the big ideas of the text (Duke, Pressley & Hilden, 2004). While reading comprehension is dependent on decoding skills, decoding skills by themselves are not enough (Adams, 1990). In order to understand the printed words, readers must tap into their knowledge about language as well as their understanding of the world. Reading comprehension thus requires accurate, effortless decoding (Adams, 1990); access to linguistic knowledge about syntax, semantics, and word morphology (Catts & Kahmi, 1999; McGuinness, 2005); prior knowledge about words in a given context (Duke, Pressley & Hilden, 2004); and cause and effect reasoning skill. It is only through the skillful interplay of both bottom-up decoding skills and top-down meaning making skills that the student reads, and reads for meaning. Students’ ability to read and understand increasingly difficult texts increases as they develop more sophisticated decoding skills, improve their vocabulary knowledge and linguistic awareness, and gain experience with the world. Effective reading comprehension instruction that supports the acquisition of comprehension strategies applied to a wide range of reading materials is essential.Talk about bullet points
121 Daze Administration Directions: Before handing out the worksheets, say, "I am going to give you a worksheet. When you get your worksheet, please write your name at the top and put your pencil down."When all of the students are ready, say, "You are going to read a story with some missing words. For each missing word there will be a box with three words. Circle the word that makes the most sense in the story. Look at Practice 1. Listen. After playing in the dirt, Sam went (pause) home, summer, was (pause) to wash her hands. You should circle the word “home” because “home” makes the most sense in the story. Listen. After playing in the dirt, Sam went home to wash her hands. Now it is your turn. Read Practice 2 silently. When you come to a box, read all the words in the box and circle the word that makes the most sense in the story. When you are done, put your pencil down.Follow these directions exactly each time with each student. Say the words in bold italic type verbatim. Begin with the modeling and practice activities. The practice activities are designed to introduce the assessment task to the student. They are untimed and include correction procedures. The correction procedures are not used once the timing begins. 1.Before handing out the worksheets, say I am going to give you a worksheet. When you get your worksheet, please write your name at the top and put your pencil down. Hand out the Daze student worksheets. Make sure each student has the appropriate worksheet. If the worksheets are in a booklet, make sure each student’s booklet is open to the correct worksheet. When all of the students are ready, say You are going to read a story with some missing words. For each missing word there will be a box with three words. Circle the word that makes the most sense in the story. Look at Practice 1. Listen. After playing in the dirt, Sam went (pause) home, summer, was (pause) to wash her hands. You should circle the word “home” because “home” makes the most sense in the story. Listen. After playing in the dirt, Sam went home to wash her hands. Now it is your turn. Read Practice 2 silently. When you come to a box, read all the words in the box and circle the word that makes the most sense in the story. When you are done, put your pencil down. Allow up to 30 seconds for students to complete the example and put their pencils down. If necessary, after 30 seconds say Put your pencil down.
122 Daze Administration:As soon as all students have their pencils down, say, "Listen. On her way home, she (pause) chair, sleep, saw (pause) an ice cream truck. You should have circled “saw” because “saw” makes the most sense in the story. Listen. On her way home, she saw an ice cream truck. When I say “begin,” turn the page over and start reading the story silently. When you come to a box, read all the words in the box and circle the word that makes the most sense in the story. Ready? Begin." Start your stopwatch after you say “begin.” Monitor students to ensure they are reading and circling the words. Use the reminders as needed.At the end of 3 minutes, stop your stopwatch and say, "Stop. Put your pencil down." Collect all of the Daze worksheet packets.Allow up to 30 seconds for students to complete the example and put their pencils down. If necessary, after 30 seconds say Put your pencil down. 2. As soon as all students have their pencils down, say Listen. On her way home, she (pause) chair, sleep, saw (pause) an ice cream truck. You should have circled “saw” because “saw” makes the most sense in the story. Listen. On her way home, she saw an ice cream truck. When I say “begin,” turn the page over and start reading the story silently. When you come to a box, read all the words in the box and circle the word that makes the most sense in the story. Ready? Begin. Start your stopwatch after you say “begin.” 3. Monitor students to ensure they are reading and circling the words. Use the reminders as needed. 4. At the end of 3 minutes, stop your stopwatch and say Stop. Put your pencil down. Collect all of the Daze worksheet packets.
123 Daze Scoring: Calculate and record scores correct and incorrect Daze Adjust Score, adjusts for guessingDaze Adjusted Score FormulaCorrect Responses - Incorrect Responses ÷ 2Then round to the nearest whole numberDo not record negative numbersCorrect the worksheets and calculate the number of correct and incorrect responses. If a student complete the entire assessment before the timelimit they are not at risk of having coprehension problems (given they did not just circle answers). Calculate their score.Record both scores on the cover sheet. On the cover sheet, "C" designates correct responses and "I" designates incorrect responses. For benchmark assessment, also transfer the score to the front of the scoring booklet. For progress monitoring, there is no scoring booklet for Daze, but there is a progress monitoring chart to record the scores. • The Daze Adjusted Score is a modified score that compensates for student guessing. Most data management services will calculate the Adjusted Score for you. To calculate the Adjusted Score DIBELS Next Assessment Manual Daze 100 yourself, use the following formula: Daze Adjusted Score = number of correct responses – (number of incorrect responses ÷ 2). The result of the formula should then be rounded to the nearest whole number. Half-points (0.5) should be rounded up. The minimum Daze Adjusted Score is 0. Do not record a negative number.
124 DAZE Important Reminders If student read out loud say, "Remember to read the story silently."If a student is not working say, "Remember to circle the word in each box that makes the most sense int he story." Use this prompt as often as needed.
125 Scoring RulesHere is an example of a DAZE sentence in a DAZE passage. A response is only correct if the student circled or otherwise marked the correct word.
130 Math Rote Counting Scoring Record the last correct number said in one minute.If the student makes a mistake in counting sequence, stop the test at that time and record the last correct number stated in the sequence.Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8. The score would be 5.
131 Math Number Identification MaterialsStopwatchNumber sheet for student.Number sheet for examiner.Directions
132 Math Number Identification AdministrationIndividually administeredRead through directions
133 Math Number Identification ScoringAs you are administering the probe, tally the incorrect responses.At the end of one minute how many numbers have been presented.Subtract the number of mistakes from total presented.
134 Math Computation: 1-8 Materials Administration Stopwatch Probe pencil Can be group administered.Times: Use chartDirections: need to look ahead for type of problem.
135 Math Computation: 1-8 Scoring Compare the student response with the scoring template.Only score the numbers in the students answer (NOT WORK).If the answer is correct, record the total correct digits (CD).
136 Math Computation: 1-8 If the answer is incorrect… Compare each number and count any numbers correct. USE ARROWS!When scoring addition, subtraction, and multiplication compare template answer to students response from right to left.
138 Math Computation: 1-8When scoring division compare students response to the template from left to right.
139 Math Computation: 1-8 Example 23 Answer: 23 (2 CD) 8184 Students Response: 21 (1 CD)16 Students Response: 230 (2 CD)24 Students response: 123 (0 CD)24
140 Math Computation: 1-8 Division problems with remainders: Score division from left to right but score the remainder from right to left (because the student would likely subtract to calculate the remainder).
141 Math Computation: 1-8 Example Answer: 403 R 52 (5 CD) Student response: 41 R 402 (2 CD)Student response: 133 R 5 (1 CD)
142 Math Computation: 1-8 Decimals Start at the decimal point and work outward in both directions.Decimal points are not counted in correct digits.
143 Math Computation: 1-8 Example Answer: 2.15 (3 CD) Student response: 2.1 (2 CD)Student response: 215 (0 CD)
144 Math Computation: 1-8 Fractions: Score right to left for each portion of the answer. Evaluate digits correct in the whole number part, numerator, and denominator, then add digits together.
146 Math Application: 2-11 Materials Stopwatch. Probe for student. Pencil for student.Calculator (7-11).
147 Math Application: 2-11 Administration Can be group administered. Time Limits: see chart.Directions: Different for 7-11MISTAKE: 6th grade #13 answer is 15.
148 Math Application: 2-11 Scoring Compare the student’s response with the scoring template.Students receive one point for each blank.Answer is either right or wrong, based on the scoring template.
149 Math Application: 2-11 Scoring When a dollar sign is needed in the answer it must be present or it is incorrect.On the 7-11 if there are no blanks then one blank is assumed.
150 Calculation and Application Reversed/Rotated digitsReversed digits are counted as correct.Rotated digits with the exception of 6 and 9 are correct.Reversed $ is counted as correct.
151 Practice Exercise? Questions MathPractice Exercise?Questions
152 Written Language MATERIALS Story starter Lined paper for student responsesStopwatchpencilOk. We’re ready to look at administration and scoring of written language CBM.These are the materials you will need.Please turn to the Written Language section of your CBM binder.
153 WRITTEN LANGUAGE Administration Can be group administered. Read specific directions.Time:1 minute to think after directions3 minutes to writeSome things to know.WL can be administered in a group setting.You will need to read the specific directions to the student(s).The time is the same for all grade levels:1 minute to think after the directions are given.3 minutes to write.
154 ScoringTWWCount the total of number of words written during the 3 minute period.Include words that are spelled incorrectly.All words are counted regardless of spelling or context.The bouy runned dun the sidwalk. (TWW = 6)*If it appears to be a word unit, count it.The written passages will be scored for 2 things:1. Total words written (TWW)2. Correct word sequences (CWS).Read and review rules and example.
155 What is a Correct Word Sequence? Two adjacent writing units (word/word or word/punctuation) that are acceptable within the context of what is written.^The^sky^is^blue^. CWS=5^The^sky^is blew . CWS=3We are going to go over how to score cws. The directions for scoring in this binder are the same as the directions in the CBM benchmarking/norming binder.REFER TO PAGE 20A THROUGH 22 FOR SCORING DIRECTIONS in CBM Binder.
156 Scoring Rules for CWS:Rule 1. Capitalization at the beginning of a sentence.The first word of a sentence must be capitalized. Words that should not be capitalized must begin with a lower-case letter.ex: ^Let’s^go^swimming^today^. CWS=5ex: let’s go^swimming^today^. CWS=3Read and review scoring rule and example.
157 Scoring Rules for CWS: Rule 2. Capitalization within a sentence. 2a. Proper nouns must be capitalized for a correct writing sequence to be scored.ex: ^She^asked^me^to^give^the^book^to^Nate^.CWS=10ex: ^She^asked^me^to^give^the^book^to nate .CWS= 8Proper nouns must be capitalized.Read and review scoring rule and example.
158 Scoring Rules for CWS: Rule 2. Capitalization within a sentence. 2b. Words that should not be capitalized for a correct writing sequence to be scored.ex: ^The^monkey^ate^a^banana^while ^swinging^from^the^tree^. CWS=11ex: ^The Monkey ate^a Banana while^swinging ^from^the^tree^. CWS=8Words that should not be capitalized, should not be capitalized to be scored as correct.
159 Scoring Rules for CWS: Rule 3. Punctuation at the end of a sentence. Correct punctuation must be present at the end of a sentence for a correct writing sequence to be scored.ex: ^I^could^see^new^planets^. ^It ^would^be^fun^in^space^. CWS=13ex: ^I^could^see^new^planets ^It^would ^be^fun^in^space CWS=11There must be punctuation at the end of a sentence in order for the word sequence to be counted as correct.Read and review example.
160 Scoring Rules for CWS (Rule 3, cont.) ex: ^The^dog^ran^away^. ^The^boy^chased^him^. CWS=10ex: ^The^dog^ran^away the boy^chased^him^.CWS=7Read and review rule and example.
161 Scoring Rules for CWS: Rule 4. Punctuation within a sentence. 4a. Commas are not counted as part of the correct writing sequences total except when included in a series of nouns. When part of a series, commas must be used correctly for a correct writing sequence to be scored.ex: ^Next,^take^out^the^garbage^.CWS=6^Next^take^out^the^garbage^.Commas can get a little tricky.The only time commas are counted as part of a word sequence is when they are included as part of a series, otherwise they are ignored.Read and review rule.
162 Scoring Rules for CWS, cont. Rule 4a, cont.When part of a series, commas must be used correctly for a correct writing sequence to be scored.ex: ^Max^went^to^the^store^to^buy^bread,^milk,^and^cheese^. CWS=12If commas are included in the writing as part of a series, they must be used correctly.Read and review example.
163 Practice Exercise? Questions Written LanguagePractice Exercise?QuestionsLet’s take a few minutes to practice.Refer to activity packet.
164 RESOURCES DIBELS NEXT Benchmarking probes Progress Monitoring probes Fuchs &Fuchs, Monitoring Basic Skills Progress (MBSP)Jamestown Timed Readings, 4th EditionEasy CBM ReadingMathMath Algebra ProbesThese are the resources available to you through the SDC that were referenced in today’s presentation.