www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Essential Components of RTI 1.Scientifically Based, Preventative Instruction –Evidence-based core instruction 2.Early Identification –Utilize universal screening 3.Intervention –Implement and track interventions for students making insufficient progress 4.Monitor Progress Formatively –Use formative, ongoing assessment to monitor student progress 5.Data-based Decisions –Use data to guide instructional decisions
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Assessment in an RTI Framework Multiple forms of assessment needed to answer specific instructional questions –Summative, formative Assessment results can be used to identify the level of instructional intervention needed: 1.Benchmark: Students making adequate progress toward goal; no additional support needed 2.Strategic: Students at risk for difficulties; need immediate intervention to prevent additional difficulty 3.Intensive: Students with significant difficulties; need urgent and intensive support
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Three-tier Model Intensive 1-5% Strategic 5-10% Benchmark 80-90%
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Screening Assessment Purpose and design of test: –Screening for student difficulty with broad skills –25 computation items –25 application items Technical adequacy: –Content review by teachers –Statistical analyses To access the results of screening : Website and login information Time to get on computers…
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata http://data.or.easycbm.com/ easyCBM Login Enter Username Enter Password Student Login: Teacher Username
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Reports Tab Click on test for report; scroll down to see student roster with scores for each test. Click on Individuals, then select student name to view student progress/score.
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Screening Assessment Results What did you notice about your class results? If you assessed more than one class, how did your classes compare? How do your classes compare to district information (if available)? What does this information tell you about individual student needs? How can you use this information for instructional planning and delivery?
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata project DATA Assessment Focus Screening Identifies level of risk Criterion-based Indicates student skill in a broad area (e.g., computation, problem- solving) Provides data to support teachers in identifying students who may need additional support or assessment Progress Monitoring Measures growth Individually-referenced Provide a snapshot of student performance in a focused skill area Sensitive to small changes in student performance Data frequently graphed to assist decisions
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata What Screening and CBM are not… Curriculum-embedded assessments –Do not look at student skill relative to objectives in the curriculum Representative of all of a student’s knowledge/skill in mathematics –Probes are brief measures of several skills Sufficient for measuring mastery of skill –Probes support formative evaluation of student performance relative to desired outcomes
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata General Features of Math CBMs Content sampled from across the curriculum Number and proportion of items representing each subskill is consistent across forms Items are arranged in random order Standard probe includes 25 items, 1 page Administration is timed (average 4 minutes) Typically group administered Scores are usually calculated by counting correct digits Difficulty of probes are constant across the year
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Progress Monitoring in Mathematics Many progress monitoring measures emphasize computational skills, foundational to more advanced skills Strong computational skills leads to increased likelihood that students will experience success with more complex math topics Fluency measures (e.g, CBM) support the assessment of student automaticity with material Automaticity with basic skills is essential to reduce cognitive load while learning complex mathematic concepts
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Research Support for Progress Monitoring Allows educators to make informed decisions about the effectiveness of instruction (Deno, 1992) Use of data leads to more immediate, appropriate program changes (Shinn, Shinn, Hamilton, & Clarke, 2002) Need for students to be quick and efficient in basic skills (National Research Council, 2001; Shinn & Bamonto, 1998) Research has focused on creating valid, reliable progress monitoring measures (e.g., DIBELS and CBM) Academic achievement can be improved by monitoring progress, graphing progress, adding decision rules, and setting ambitious goals (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986)
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Progress Monitoring Results What do you notice about student scores? What information can you glean from student performance? Are there areas where students need support? What strategies can you use to address skill deficits?
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Scoring Student Responses Evaluate the response: –Correct digit or correct representation –Digit is formed correctly and legible –Correct place value Calculate the total number of correct digits per minute (CD) 3/32/23/3 0/54/5 Total digits correct: 12/18
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Progress Monitoring Procedures 1.Identify standards for student performance 2.Screen to identify students at-risk for falling below the standard 3.Determine a baseline score and set a goal or aim for each student (e.g., ambitious or realistic, draw aimline) 4.Implement a progress monitoring schedule based on the frequency of data desired 5.Use the data to inform instruction and implement interventions where needed 6.Update progress monitoring schedule to reflect changes in need for data
Using Data to Determine Goals Steps: 1.Gather baseline & performance data October and November 2.Set student performance goals December 3.Monitor progress toward goals Ongoing 4.Adjust or modify instruction as needed Winter focus
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Procedural Logistics Now that you’ve given probes… What worked? What didn’t work? How can process be improved next week?
www.uoregon.edu/~projdata Closing Activities Evaluation Questions? Next meeting –December 2 –Continue to collect progress monitoring data –Other tasks?