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© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development."— Presentation transcript:

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2 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Office of Early Childhood Literacy Assessment Tools – Grades K -1 Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills DIBELS Administration and Scoring Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

3 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS ® Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) Big Idea: Benchmark Goal: Assessment Times: -Accuracy and fluency reading connected text -Phonics - 40 end of First Grade - 90 end of Second Grade end of Third Grade end of Fourth Grade end of Fifth Grade end of Sixth Grade - First Grade: Winter, spring - Second - Sixth Grades: Fall, winter, spring

4 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Oral Reading Fluency What Big Idea? Accuracy and Fluency (reading connected text) Phonics

5 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Materials Palm Pilot Pencil-Paper Scoring booklet Student booklet Clipboard Stopwatch Pen or pencil Palm Pilot Student booklet

6 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group What is Accuracy and Fluency Reading Connected Text? “…a level of accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively effortless; where oral reading is smooth and accurate with correct prosody; and where attention can be allocated to comprehension.” - Wolf and Katzir-Cohen, 2001 “… efficient, effective word recognition skills that permit a reader to construct the meaning of text. Fluency is manifested in accurate, rapid, expressive reading and is applied during, and makes possible, silent reading comprehension.” - Pikulski and Chard, 2005

7 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Why Accuracy and Fluency? “Before readers can fully marshal their cognitive resources to the task of comprehending the text they must automatize their word decoding. Otherwise a significant amount of their cognitive resources must be diverted to consciously attending to word decoding.” - Rasinski & Hoffman, 2006 “As part of a developmental process of building decoding skills, fluency can form a bridge to reading comprehension.” - Piklulski and Chard, 2005

8 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group When Should Accuracy and Fluency be Taught? Teach accuracy in decoding skills (e.g., phonics) first. Teach fluency when accuracy is at least 95%.

9 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS ® Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) Examiner shows reading passage to student. Student reads the passage. Score: Number of words read correctly in 1 minute.

10 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Directions for Administration 1.Place the scoring booklet on the clipboard and position so that the student cannot see what you record. 2.Place the reading passage in front of the student.

11 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Directions 3.Say these specific directions to the student: Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say “stop” I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to first word of the passage). Begin. Note: Follow standardized directions above and read the directions verbatim; do not read the title or tell the student what the passage is about.

12 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group 4.Start your stopwatch after the student says the first word of the passage. 5.Follow along on the examiner scoring page. Put a slash (/) over words read incorrectly. 6.At the end of 1 minute place a bracket (]) after the last word read, say “Stop” and stop your stopwatch. 7.Record the total number of words read correctly on the bottom of the scoring page. Directions

13 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Timing Rule for DORF: Continuous for 1 Minute Start your stopwatch after the student says the first word. At the end of 1 minute place a bracket (]) after the last word read, say “Stop” and stop your stopwatch. Note: If the student is in the middle of a sentence at the end of 1 minute, you may allow the student to finish the sentence but only score the words said up to end of 1 minute.

14 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Wait Rule for DORF: 3 Seconds Maximum time for each word is 3 seconds. If the student does not read a word within 3 seconds, say the word and mark the word as incorrect. If necessary, indicate for the student to continue with the next word.

15 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group If the student does not read any words correctly in the first row of the first passage, discontinue administering the passage and record a score of zero (0). Discontinue Rule: Part I: Zero (0) Words in the First Row

16 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group If the student reads fewer than 10 words per minute in the first passage, do not administer the next two passages. Record the score from the first passage. Discontinue Rule: Part II: Fewer than ten (10) words in First Passage

17 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Directions for Scoring 1.Put a slash (/) over any word read incorrectly or omitted. 2.Do not mark words read correctly or any words added or repeated.

18 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS Dad read the paper.“Dad reed the paper.” (i.e.,.long e) Dad read the paper. 3 /4 I ate too much.“I eat too much.”I ate too much. 3 /4 Scoring Examples Mispronounced Words A word is scored as correct if it is pronounced correctly in the context of the sentence. If the word is mispronounced in the context, it is scored as an error. A word is scored as incorrect each time it is read incorrectly.

19 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS My father is 36.“My father is thirty- six.” My father is /4 My father is 36.My father is three six.” My father is /4 I am 6 years old.“I am six years old.”I am 6 years old. 5 /5 Scoring Examples Numerals Numerals must be read correctly in the context of the sentence.

20 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Scoring Examples Repeated Words Words that are repeated are ignored in scoring. PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS I have a goldfish.“I have a... I have a goldfish.” I have a goldfish. 4 /4

21 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Scoring Examples Inserted Words Inserted words are ignored and not counted as errors. The student does not get additional credit for inserted words. PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS It is time for a rest.“It is time for a long rest.” It is time for a rest. 6 /6 I ate too much.“I ate way too much.”I ate too much. 4 /4

22 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS It is time for a rest.“It is time for rest.”It is time for a rest. 5 /6 I ate too much.“I ate much.”I ate too much. 3 /4 Scoring Examples Omitted Words Omitted words are scored as incorrect.

23 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS The ice cream man comes. “The cream ice man comes.” The ice cream man comes. 3 /5 I ate too much.“I too ate much.”I ate too much. 2 /4 Scoring Examples Word Order All words that are read correctly but in the wrong order are scored as incorrect.

24 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS May I watch TV?“May I watch teevee?” May I watch TV? 4 /4 May I watch TV?“May I watch television?” May I watch TV? 4 /4 My teacher is Mr. Smith. “My teacher is mister Smith.” My teacher is Mr. Smith. 5 /5 My teacher is Mr. Smith. “My teacher is ‘m’ ‘r’ Smith.” My teacher is Mr. Smith. 4 /5 Scoring Examples Abbreviations Abbreviations should be read in the way you would normally pronounce the abbreviation in conversation.

25 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS Dad read the paper“Dad reed... red the paper.” (i.e., self- corrects to short e) Dad read the paper. 4 /4 SC Note Self Corrects A word is scored as correct if it is initially mispronounced but the student self-corrects within 3 seconds. Mark “SC” above the word and score as correct.

26 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Note Articulation and Dialect The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or different first language. Example: The student consistently says /th/ for /s/ and reads “rest” as “retht.” PASSAGESTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT WORDS/ TOTAL WORDS It is time for a rest.“It is time for a retht.” (articulation) It is time for a rest. 6 /6 We took the short cut. “We took the shot cut.” (dialect) We took the short cut. 5 /5

27 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Add the number of words read correctly up to the bracket. Record total number of words read correctly in space provided in the lower right hand of scoring page. Final Score: Scoring Page

28 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Final Score: Benchmark Assessment If the student reads fewer than 10 words correct on the first passage, transfer the total number of words read correctly from the scoring page to the front of the benchmark assessment booklet. Do not administer passages 2 and 3.

29 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group If the student reads 3 passages, transfer the student’s middle score to the front of the benchmark assessment booklet. For example, if the student gets scores of 27, 36, and 25, record a score of 27 on the front cover. What does a score of 27 on DORF at the end of first grade mean? What will you do if you have any question about the accuracy/validity of the benchmark score? Final Score: Benchmark Assessment 27 5

30 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Accommodations for DORF Enlarged print/colored overlays Braille Use of ruler/marker to keep place

31 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DORF Review When do I start the timer? Start the timer after the student reads the first word. How do I mark a word as incorrect? Slash an incorrect word. What do I do if a student hesitates for 3 seconds? Tell the student the word and mark it as incorrect (slash). What do I do if a student self corrects? Mark “SC” above the word and score as correct. How do I mark a word as correct? Leave correctly read words blank. What do I do if a student adds a word? Leave blank. What do I do if a student reads a word out of order? Words read out of order are marked as incorrect (slash).

32 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DORF Summary Start timer after student reads the first word. Correct (leave blank) Incorrect (slash) Incorrect (leave blank) Reads correct word; pronounces correctly in context Pronounces word incorrectly due to articulation delay/dialect/different first language Reads incorrect word Reads correct word out of order Omits word Hesitates 3 seconds Repeats word Adds word Reads numerals or abbreviations Self-correct: Write “SC” above word and count as correct. Skipped line: Draw a line through entire line and do not count. Three-second Rule: Say the word, mark as incorrect (slash), and, if necessary, point to the next word and say, “what word?”. Discontinue Rule: No correct words read in the first line.

33 © 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Contact Information Arnetta Imes, Lead Academic Coach –Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Lyn Bauer, School Growth Specialist –Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Donna Orenstein, Lead Assessment Coach –Office of Assessment Renee Queen Jackson, Lead Academic Coach –Office of Early Childhood


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