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© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Office of Early Childhood Literacy Assessment Tools – Grades K -1 Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills DIBELS Administration and Scoring Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Big Idea: Benchmark Goal: Assessment Times: - NONE - No Benchmark Goal: Use local norms - Kindergarten: - Fall, winter, spring - First Grade: Fall
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Letter Naming is an Added Measure of Risk There is no benchmark goal for Letter Naming Fluency. LNF serves as an indicator of risk in conjunction with scores on other DIBELS ® measures. Use local percentiles to determine risk.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Materials Palm Pilot Pencil-Paper Scoring booklet Student booklet Clipboard Stopwatch Pen or pencil Palm Pilot Student booklet
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Examiner shows the student the page of letters. Student says the names of the letters. Score: Number of letters correctly named in 1 minute.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Directions for Administration 1.Place the scoring booklet on the clipboard and position so that the student cannot see what you record. 2.Place the page of letters (student materials) in front of the student.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group 3.Say these specific directions to the student: Here are some letters (point). Tell me the names of as many letters as you can. When I say “begin,” start here (point to first letter), and go across the page (point). Point to each letter and tell me the name of that letter. If you come to a letter you don’t know I’ll tell it to you. Put your finger on the first letter. Ready, begin. Directions
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group 4.Start your stopwatch. 5.Follow along on the score sheet in the test booklet. Put a slash (/) through letters named incorrectly (see scoring procedures). 6.At the end of 1 minute place a bracket (]) after the last letter named, say “Stop” and stop your stopwatch. 7.Add the number of letters named correctly. Record number on the bottom of the scoring sheet. Directions
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Maximum time for each letter is 3 seconds. If the student does not name the next letter within 3 seconds, score the letter incorrect (i.e., slash the letter). Say the correct letter and, if necessary, point to the next letter and say, “What letter?” Wait Rule for LNF: 3 Seconds LETTERSSTUDENT SAYSPROMPT SCORING PROCEDURE T L s U I g W r “t” (3 sec) “I” “g” (3 sec) “L (point to s) What letter?” “W (point to r) What letter?” t L s U I g W r
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Discontinue Rule: First 10 Letters If the student does not get any correct letter names within the first 10 letters (1 row), discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0).
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Prompting Rule If the student provides the letter sound rather than the letter name, say, “Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes.” This prompt may be provided once.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Directions for Scoring Slash (/) any letter that the student omits or names incorrectly. Letters named correctly are not marked.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group LETTERSSTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT LETTERS T D s U “t…b…s…u” “t…d…g…o” t D s U 3/4 2/4 Scoring Examples: Slash Incorrect Letters Substitutions A letter is incorrect if the student substitutes a different letter for the stimulus letter (e.g., “B” for “D”).
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group LETTERSSTUDENT SAYS SCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT LETTERS T D s U “t…s…u” “t…u” t D s U 3 /4 2 /4 Scoring Examples: Slash Incorrect Letters Omissions A letter is incorrect if the student omits the letter.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Note Self Correct If a student makes an error and corrects him or herself within 3 seconds, write “SC” above the letter and do not count it as an error.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Note Similar Letters The upper case letter “I,” and the lower case letter “L” are difficult or impossible to distinguish. A response of either “I” or “L” is scored as correct. LETTERS STUDENT SAYSSCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT LETTERS I D s l “l..d..s..l” I D s l 4 /4
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Note Skips Row If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group LETTERS STUDENT SAYSSCORING PROCEDURE CORRECT LETTERS c D s U “thee…d…eth..u” c D s U 4 /4 Note Articulation and Dialect The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or different first language. - Example: The student consistently says /th/ for /s/ and pronounces “thee” for “see” when naming the letter “C.”
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Final Score: Scoring Page Add number of correct letters named up to bracket. Record total number of letters correctly named in space provided in lower right hand corner of scoring page. 35
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Final Score: Benchmark Assessment 35 Transfer total number of correct letters named from scoring page to front of benchmark assessment booklet.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group General Accommodations Setting/Examiner: – Test in alternate setting, e.g., complete quiet, minimal distractions, enhanced lighting. – Test with familiar person, specialist, etc. present. – Test by person with specialized training (e.g., SLP). Directions: – Check student’s understanding (have the child repeat what to do). – Provide directions in student’s primary language. – Repeat practice example, provide an additional example. – Provide lead example (e.g., do it with me) in addition to model. Note: It is always permissible to retest, i.e., repeat assessment on different days with different forms.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Accommodations for LNF Specific to LNF –Large print –Colored overlay –Braille –Use marker or ruler to keep place
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group LNF Review How do I mark a letter incorrectly named? Slash the letter. How do I mark a correct letter? Leave blank. What do I do if a student hesitates for 3 seconds? Name the letter and slash it. If necessary, point to the next letter and say, “What letter?” What do I do if a student skips an entire row? Draw a line through the entire row and do not count it.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group LNF Summary Start timer after you say “Begin.” Correct (leave blank) Incorrect (slash letter) Names correct letter Mispronounces letter due to articulation delay/dialect/different first language Names upper case i and/or lower case L as either i or L Names incorrect letter Hesitates for 3 seconds Omits letter Self-correct: Write “SC” above letter and count as correct. Skips row: Draw a line through the entire row and do not count. Prompt: Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes. Three-second Rule: Say the correct letter name and slash the letter. If necessary, point to the next letter and say, “What letter?” Discontinue Rule: No correct letters in the first row.
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group Contact Information Arnetta Imes, Lead Academic Coach –Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Lyn Bauer, School Growth Specialist –Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Donna Orenstein, Lead Assessment Coach –Office of Assessment Renee Queen Jackson, Lead Academic Coach –Office of Early Childhood
© 2007, Dynamic Measurement Group DIBELS THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development.
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