Presentation on theme: "At The Bell Look at the image to the right How is England represented? What is the message?"— Presentation transcript:
At The Bell Look at the image to the right How is England represented? What is the message?
What is Imperialism? The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation. Example: Spanish control of Central America (modern Mexico)
Geopolitics The influence of geographic factors on international power relationships (natural resources, climate, natural barriers, defined boundaries, etc.) Example: Importance of the Middle East today due to world’s largest oil reserves
Natural Resources Valued elements of the environment; includes minerals, fresh water, arable soil, vegetation, natural harbors, etc. Example: gold, iron ore, land suitable for sugar cultivation
Strategic Choke Points Narrowing of an international waterway to less than 24 miles, where a blockading army could choke the waterway Example: Bosporus Strait at Istanbul
British Imperial Decisions 1689 ► You are an adviser to King William of England in 1689. England can only afford to provide financial and military aid to its four most important colonies. ► Look at the British colonies in 1689, British colonial goals, and information about Europe to advise the King.
#1 Ireland England’s first and most important colony Key to English safety Catholic Ireland could be used as a base for invasion of Anglican England Govt support of colonial expansion for protection – not economic reasons
#2 India city-states “Jewel in the Crown” of British Empire Natural resources and goods (cotton, tea, spices, silk, jewels, dyes) Large market of fairly prosperous people to purchase English goods Consistently supplies reliable, courageous troops for colonial wars
#3 Caribbean Colonies (Jamaica, Barbados, Virgin Islands) “The real prize of colonial wars were the sugar islands of the Caribbean” Sugar, rum, and tobacco trade was more valuable than lumber, fish, and furs from American colonies After 1763, Britain offered to trade Canada to France for island of Guadalupe. France refused.
#4 American Colonies or Gold Coast American Colonies ► Tobacco, lumber, fish, and furs ► Market to purchase English manufactured goods ► Location to send political and religious troublemakers and criminals Gold Coast (Ghana) ► Slaves and gold
Industrialization Changes in British Colonial Goals 1. Britain has become the largest manufacturer and trading nation in the world. Made possible by most powerful navy. 2. British Empire the largest empire in world history: covers 25% of earth’s surface and has 150 million people 3. With expansion of Empire, Britain much more concerned with geopolitical strategy (e.g., chokepoints) 4. Industrial Revolution has increased demand for raw materials (e.g., cotton, rubber, coal, copper, etc.)
Industrialization Changes in British Colonial Goals 5. Change in nature of imperialism from settler-colonies to full control from London 6. British abolished the slave trade in 1807 and became aggressive about pursuing illegal slavery from Africa 7. With increasing industrialism throughout Europe, competition for resources around the world has expanded. 8. Nationalism leads to desire for empire to show national pride
British Imperial Decisions 1890 ► You are a member of the British Cabinet and you must advise Queen Victoria because England can only afford to provide financial and military aid to its four most important colonies. ► Look at the British colonies in 1890, British colonial goals, and information about Europe to advise the King.
#1 Egypt ► Protect the Suez Canal and England’s main trade route to India ► Cotton – raw material for industrialization
#2 South Africa ► Gold and diamonds ► Protect alternate route to India ► Fueling and food station ► Boer War fought to maintain British hold over African resistance
#3 Gibraltar ► Naval base provided protection for important trade routes from Middle East and Asia ► Militarily strategic location at entrance to Mediterranean
#4 Singapore ► Key location protects trade routes to Asia and Straits of Malacca ► Naval station and port with excellent harbor ► Winston Churchill said Singapore’s loss to Japan in WW II the worst loss in history of British Empire
Changes and Continuities ► Take a look at the goals of British Imperialism in 1689 and 1890. ► What changed and what stayed the same? ► Why did the goals change? Why did some stay the same?
Continuities and changes between goals of British imperialism from 1689 to 1890 Continuities Changes Locations for expanded populations Desire for raw goods: gold, silver, and diamonds Markets for British manufactured goods Geostrategic goals: naval bases and choke points Natural resources for industry: coal, rubber, copper, etc. Spread British civilization National prestige End of slavery