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“What is a man born for but to be a Reformer, a Remaker of what man has made; a renouncer of lies, a restorer of truth and good…” Ralph Waldo Emerson,

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Presentation on theme: "“What is a man born for but to be a Reformer, a Remaker of what man has made; a renouncer of lies, a restorer of truth and good…” Ralph Waldo Emerson,"— Presentation transcript:

1 “What is a man born for but to be a Reformer, a Remaker of what man has made; a renouncer of lies, a restorer of truth and good…” Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1841

2 What does it mean to “reform”? Why was reform necessary in the 1800s? Is there still a need for reform today?

3 Second Great Awakening- the religious movement that swept through the United States in the 1800s. NO MORE CALVINIST BELIEFS! WE MAKE OUR OWN DESTINY NOW!

4 Transcendentalists- believed that spiritual discovery and insight would lead a person to truths more profound than those through reason. WE DO NOT BELIEVE IN GROUP WORSHIP. WE CELEBRATE THE TRUTHS FOUND IN NATURE AND IN THE PERSONAL IMAGINATION!

5 Henry David Thoreau- believed that people should not obey laws they believed were unjust. They should peacefully not obey them. Civil Disobedience. Thoreau himself even went to jail for not following laws!

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7 “… chemistry enough to keep the pot boiling and geography enough to know the location of different rooms in house…” was considered learned enough for women. Is there anywhere we still see this today? A lack of education for women? For anyone? “… chemistry enough to keep the pot boiling and geography enough to know the location of different rooms in house…” was considered learned enough for women. Is there anywhere we still see this today? A lack of education for women? For anyone?

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9 Improving Education In early 1800s, school not compulsory, not divided by grade Pennsylvania establishes tax-supported public school system in 1834 Horace Mann establishes teacher training, curriculum reforms By 1850s, all states have publicly funded elementary schools

10 The Cult of Domesticity- Hop on! Cult of domesticity Way of thought that demanded women restrict their activities after marriage to home and family. In the early 1800s, women who worked were usually unmarried and made ½ the salary that a man would make for doing the same or similar work. Popular jobs Seamstress House Maid Teacher! By in 5 white women worked for wages.

11 Until 1820s, few opportunities for girls past elementary school Academic schools for women become available: , Emma Willard opens Troy Female Seminary , Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary , Oberlin College admits 4 women; first coeducational college African-American girls have few opportunities to get good education

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15 William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison— radical white abolitionist Radical- extremist (far beyond the norm) Abolitionist- reformer who wants to end slavery Starts a paper called The Liberator. Why would he name his paper The Liberator? Starts a paper called The Liberator. Why would he name his paper The Liberator?

16 Frederick Douglass was taught to read by his owners wife. Once his owner found out he proclaimed… “Reading would forever unfit him to be a slave!” What does this mean, why was the owner so upset? With education comes freedom.

17 Women we involved in several important reform movements – Health and Prison Reform (Dorothea Dix) – Abolitionist Movement – Temperance Movement – Education

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19 The Immigrant Movement Many employers felt that they could still use unfair tactics, low pay, and dangerous working conditions on immigrants trying to survive. The Immigrant Movement Many employers felt that they could still use unfair tactics, low pay, and dangerous working conditions on immigrants trying to survive.

20 Workers Unionize Artisans form unions; begin to ally themselves with unskilled workers 1830s–1840s, 1–2% of workers organized, dozens of strikes - employers use immigrants as strikebreakers

21 National Trades’ Union 1830s, unions for same trade unite to standardize wages, conditions 1834, organizations from 6 industries form National Trades’ Union Bankers, owners form associations; courts declare strikes illegal Court Backs Strikers In 1842, Massachusetts Supreme Court upholds right to strike In 1860, barely 5,000 union members; 20,000 people in strikes

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