2Section 1: Religion Sparks Reform The Second Great AwakeningTranscendentalism and ReformAmericans Form Ideal CommunitiesSchools and Prisons Undergo Reform
3The Second GreatAfter 1790 Religious movement that rejected Calvinistic beliefs.Involved emotional revival ceremonies.Brought Christianity to slaves and reformed African American Churches.
4Transcendentalism Started by Ralph Waldo Emerson in mid-1800’s. Emphasized living simply and appreciating nature.
5Thoreau and Civil Disobedience “I learned this, at least, by my experiment; that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours…If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them.”What does this quote mean?
6Unitarianism and Utopian Communities Unitarianism Emphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the paths to perfection.Utopian Communities Experimental groups that attempted to create perfect societies.
7Dorothea Dix and Prison Reform How did Dorothea Dix reform the prison system in the US?
8How was American education reformed in the mid-1800’s? School ReformsHow was American education reformed in the mid-1800’s?
9Section 2: Slavery and Abolition Abolitionists Speak OutLife Under SlaverySlave Owners Defend Slavery
10Abolitionist ViewsWilliam Lloyd Garrison Pushed for immediate emancipation in The Liberator.David Walker Advised blacks to FIGHT for freedom in Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World.Frederick Douglass Emphasized education as the path to freedom in The North Star.
11Life Under Slavery VS. Rural Large plantations. Worked from dawn to dusk.Often abused by slave ownersUrbanMills and ships.Required more skilled labor.Limited acts of cruelty.VS.
13Slave Owners Defend Slavery Summarize the following:Virginia DebateBacklash from RevoltsGag Rule
14Section 3: Women and Reform What role did these women play in the Women’s Rights Movement in the Mid-1800’s?Sarah and Angelina GrimkeEmma WillardElizabeth Cady StantonSojourner Truth
15Section 4: The Changing Workplace Industry Changes WorkFarm Worker to Factory WorkerWorkers Seek Better Conditions
16Changes in Manufacturing Rural ManufacturingCottage Industry materials provided for goods to be made at home.Work seen as a family activity.Early FactoriesDivision of labor among master, journeyman, and apprentice.More efficient and less family oriented.
17Working ConditionsTypical conditions: hot, dark, poor ventilation, and long work days.Conditions continued to deteriorate in the 1830’s.Eventually leads to strikes: “UNION IS POWER!”
18Workers Seek Better Conditions Explain how each of these things contributed to workers seeking better conditions:ImmigrationNational Trades’ UnionCommonwealth v. Hunt