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Reforming American Society. Section 1: Religion Sparks Reform The Second Great Awakening Transcendentalism and Reform Americans Form Ideal Communities.

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Presentation on theme: "Reforming American Society. Section 1: Religion Sparks Reform The Second Great Awakening Transcendentalism and Reform Americans Form Ideal Communities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reforming American Society

2 Section 1: Religion Sparks Reform The Second Great Awakening Transcendentalism and Reform Americans Form Ideal Communities Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform

3 The Second Great After 1790 Religious movement that rejected Calvinistic beliefs. After 1790 Religious movement that rejected Calvinistic beliefs. Involved emotional revival ceremonies. Involved emotional revival ceremonies. Brought Christianity to slaves and reformed African American Churches. Brought Christianity to slaves and reformed African American Churches.

4 Transcendentalism Started by Ralph Waldo Emerson in mid-1800s. Started by Ralph Waldo Emerson in mid-1800s. Emphasized living simply and appreciating nature. Emphasized living simply and appreciating nature.

5 Thoreau and Civil Disobedience I learned this, at least, by my experiment; that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours…If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them. What does this quote mean?

6 Unitarianism and Utopian Communities Unitarianism Emphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the paths to perfection. Unitarianism Emphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the paths to perfection. Utopian Communities Experimental groups that attempted to create perfect societies. Utopian Communities Experimental groups that attempted to create perfect societies.

7 Dorothea Dix and Prison Reform How did Dorothea Dix reform the prison system in the US?

8 School Reforms How was American education reformed in the mid-1800s?

9 Section 2: Slavery and Abolition Abolitionists Speak Out Life Under Slavery Slave Owners Defend Slavery

10 Abolitionist Views William Lloyd Garrison Pushed for immediate emancipation in The Liberator. William Lloyd Garrison Pushed for immediate emancipation in The Liberator. David Walker Advised blacks to FIGHT for freedom in Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. David Walker Advised blacks to FIGHT for freedom in Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. Frederick Douglass Emphasized education as the path to freedom in The North Star. Frederick Douglass Emphasized education as the path to freedom in The North Star.

11 Life Under Slavery Rural Large plantations. Large plantations. Worked from dawn to dusk. Worked from dawn to dusk. Often abused by slave owners Often abused by slave ownersUrban Mills and ships. Mills and ships. Required more skilled labor. Required more skilled labor. Limited acts of cruelty. Limited acts of cruelty. VS.

12 Nat Turner Rebellion (1831)

13 Slave Owners Defend Slavery Summarize the following: 1. Virginia Debate 2. Backlash from Revolts 3. Gag Rule

14 Section 3: Women and Reform What role did these women play in the Womens Rights Movement in the Mid-1800s? Sarah and Angelina Grimke Emma Willard Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sojourner Truth

15 Section 4: The Changing Workplace Industry Changes Work Farm Worker to Factory Worker Workers Seek Better Conditions

16 Changes in Manufacturing Rural Manufacturing Cottage Industry materials provided for goods to be made at home. Cottage Industry materials provided for goods to be made at home. Work seen as a family activity. Work seen as a family activity. Early Factories Division of labor among master, journeyman, and apprentice. Division of labor among master, journeyman, and apprentice. More efficient and less family oriented. More efficient and less family oriented.

17 Working Conditions Typical conditions: hot, dark, poor ventilation, and long work days. Typical conditions: hot, dark, poor ventilation, and long work days. Conditions continued to deteriorate in the 1830s. Conditions continued to deteriorate in the 1830s. Eventually leads to strikes: UNION IS POWER! Eventually leads to strikes: UNION IS POWER!

18 Workers Seek Better Conditions Explain how each of these things contributed to workers seeking better conditions: 1. Immigration 2. National Trades Union 3. Commonwealth v. Hunt


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