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Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Radiological Risk and Emergency Communications Draft NUREG prepared for USNRC Dr. Vincent.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Radiological Risk and Emergency Communications Draft NUREG prepared for USNRC Dr. Vincent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Radiological Risk and Emergency Communications Draft NUREG prepared for USNRC Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York Tel. (917) Radiological Risk and Emergency Communications Draft NUREG prepared for USNRC Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York Tel. (917)

2 Project Objective “To conduct a comprehensive review of the research and practitioner literature on best practice in radiation risk and emergency communication.” “To conduct a comprehensive review of the research and practitioner literature on best practice in radiation risk and emergency communication.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

3 Definition Risk: “a threat of loss, real or perceived, to that which we value.”

4 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Definition Risk: “a threat of loss, real or perceived, to that which we value.” Risk Communication: “the exchange of information about risks.” Risk: “a threat of loss, real or perceived, to that which we value.” Risk Communication: “the exchange of information about risks.”

5 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Goals enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate attitudes, behaviors and beliefs enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate attitudes, behaviors and beliefs

6 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

7 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

8 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Risk Communication Literature

9 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Example Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello “Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook” World Health Organization, United Nations: Geneva, April 2007 (www.amazon.com or Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello “Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook” World Health Organization, United Nations: Geneva, April 2007 (www.amazon.com or

10 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp Risk Communication Literature: Example

11 HERC v 3.1Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Example “Five Essential Elements of Immediate and Mid- Term Mass Trauma Intervention: Empirical Evidence,” Psychiatry, 70(4): 2007 Authors: Steven Hobfoll et. al. Conclusion of Research Provide people a sense of: Hope Self- and community efficacy Safety Calm Connectedness “Five Essential Elements of Immediate and Mid- Term Mass Trauma Intervention: Empirical Evidence,” Psychiatry, 70(4): 2007 Authors: Steven Hobfoll et. al. Conclusion of Research Provide people a sense of: Hope Self- and community efficacy Safety Calm Connectedness

12 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

13 Risk Communication Theories Trust Determination Theory Mental Noise Theory Negative Dominance Theory Risk Perception/Outrage Theory Trust Determination Theory Mental Noise Theory Negative Dominance Theory Risk Perception/Outrage Theory

14 Risk Communication Theories Trust Determination Theory Mental Noise Theory Negative Dominance Theory Risk Perception/Outrage Theory Trust Determination Theory Mental Noise Theory Negative Dominance Theory Risk Perception/Outrage Theory

15 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perception (Fear) Factors Lower Concern/Fear 1.Trustworthy sources 2.Large benefits 3.Under one’s control 4.Voluntary 5.Fair 6.Natural origin 7.Children not victims Lower Concern/Fear 1.Trustworthy sources 2.Large benefits 3.Under one’s control 4.Voluntary 5.Fair 6.Natural origin 7.Children not victims Higher Concern/Fear Untrustworthy sources Few or unclear benefits Controlled by others Involuntary Unfair Human origin Children as victims

16 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perception (Fear) Factors Lower Concern/Fear 1.Trustworthy sources 2.Large benefits 3.Under one’s control Lower Concern/Fear 1.Trustworthy sources 2.Large benefits 3.Under one’s control Higher Concern/Fear Untrustworthy sources Few or unclear benefits Controlled by others

17 HERC v 3.1Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perception (Fear) Factors Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control/Voluntariness Choice Voice Knowledge Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control/Voluntariness Choice Voice Knowledge

18 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication: Examples of Core Principles When people are concerned, stressed, or upset: they want to know that you care before they care what you know (Trust Determination Theory) have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information (Mental Noise Theory) focus most on what they hear first (Mental Noise Theory) Risk Communication: Examples of Core Principles When people are concerned, stressed, or upset: they want to know that you care before they care what you know (Trust Determination Theory) have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information (Mental Noise Theory) focus most on what they hear first (Mental Noise Theory)

19 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Caring/Empathy Principle “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.” Caring/Empathy Principle “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.”

20 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication/Message Mapping Templates CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK

21 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The CCO Template Compassion Conviction Optimism Compassion Conviction Optimism

22 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Listening/ Caring/ Empathy/Compassion 50% Competence/ Expertise 15-20% Honesty/ Openness 15-20% All Other Factors 15-20% Trust Factors in High Stress Situations

23 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication CCO: Related Templates CCO Template (Caring, Conviction, Optimism) ================== CAP Template (Caring, Actions, Perspective) CSS (Caring, Sharing, Sharing) CCO Template (Caring, Conviction, Optimism) ================== CAP Template (Caring, Actions, Perspective) CSS (Caring, Sharing, Sharing)

24 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication: Core Principles When people are concerned, stressed, or upset: have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information. Risk Communication: Core Principles When people are concerned, stressed, or upset: have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.

25 RISK COMMUNICATION Mental noise can reduce the ability to process information by up to 80% 20%

26 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Templates Rule of 3 27/9/3 Rule of 3 27/9/3

27 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Mental Noise: The Rule of 3 Everything in Threes –Three Key Messages –Repeat Messages Three Times (e.g., Triple T Model) –Key Messages Supported by Three Supporting Messages or Three Credible Sources Everything in Threes –Three Key Messages –Repeat Messages Three Times (e.g., Triple T Model) –Key Messages Supported by Three Supporting Messages or Three Credible Sources

28 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Templates Rule of 3 27/9/3 Rule of 3 27/9/3

29 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages

30 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication: Core Principles When people are concerned, stressed, or upset: process and understand information at four grades below their educational level. Risk Communication: Core Principles When people are concerned, stressed, or upset: process and understand information at four grades below their educational level.

31 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK

32 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication AGL-4 Template ======= AGL (Average Grade Level) Minus 4 (Four Grade Levels) Template “When people are stressed and upset, they typically process information at four grade levels below their average grade level.” AGL-4 Template ======= AGL (Average Grade Level) Minus 4 (Four Grade Levels) Template “When people are stressed and upset, they typically process information at four grade levels below their average grade level.”

33 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication AGL-4 Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels) Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels)

34 Notification of Unusual Event “Under this category, events are in process or have occurred which indicate potential degradation in the level of safety of the plant. No release of radioactive material requiring offsite response or monitoring is expected unless further degradation occurs.” Source: NRC Web Site “Under this category, events are in process or have occurred which indicate potential degradation in the level of safety of the plant. No release of radioactive material requiring offsite response or monitoring is expected unless further degradation occurs.” Source: NRC Web Site Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

35 Notification of an Unusual Event (revision for media and public communication) An Unusual Event is the lowest of the four emergency levels at a nuclear power plant. It involves a minor problem at the plant. Local and state emergency organizations would be notified but not asked to respond. No protective actions for the public would be required. An Unusual Event is the lowest of the four emergency levels at a nuclear power plant. It involves a minor problem at the plant. Local and state emergency organizations would be notified but not asked to respond. No protective actions for the public would be required. Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

36 Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

37 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Strategy: 7 Steps 1)Identify a risk related issue or scenario 2)Identify key stakeholders (audiences) 3)Identify stakeholder questions and concerns 4)Develop key messages 5)Develop supporting information 6)Conduct testing 7)Plan for delivery 1)Identify a risk related issue or scenario 2)Identify key stakeholders (audiences) 3)Identify stakeholder questions and concerns 4)Develop key messages 5)Develop supporting information 6)Conduct testing 7)Plan for delivery

38 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication: Core Principles “Most of the concerns and questions of upset or concerned people can be predicted and prepared for in advance.” Risk Communication: Core Principles “Most of the concerns and questions of upset or concerned people can be predicted and prepared for in advance.”

39 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Research Finding: 450 Questions from the media and the public 15 Categories of Questions (for example, radiation, KI, evacuation, sheltering, etc.) Research Finding: 450 Questions from the media and the public 15 Categories of Questions (for example, radiation, KI, evacuation, sheltering, etc.)

40 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map Stakeholder Question or Concern : Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Support- ing Info. 1.1 Support- ing Info. 1.3 Support- ing Info Support- ing Info. 2.1 Support- ing Info. 2.2 Support- ing Info. 2.3 Support- ing Info. 3.1 Support- ing Info. 3.2 : Support- ing Info. 3.3

41 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Maps Used to respond to high concern questions Contains clear, concise, layered information Contains pre-approved messages for anticipated questions Used to respond to high concern questions Contains clear, concise, layered information Contains pre-approved messages for anticipated questions

42 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Mapping Goals enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate attitudes, behaviors and beliefs enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate attitudes, behaviors and beliefs


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