Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Risk Communication – Principles, Tools, & Techniques

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Risk Communication – Principles, Tools, & Techniques"— Presentation transcript:

1 Risk Communication – Principles, Tools, & Techniques
Dr. Vincent T. Covello Center for Risk Communication Patricia A. Milligan Office of Nuclear Security & Incident Response April 1, 2010

2 “The problem with communication is the illusion it has occurred.”
George Bernard Shaw

3 Radiological Risk and Emergency Communications Draft NUREG/CR-XXXX
Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

4 NRC, EP and Communications
Project Objective NRC, EP and Communications 10 CFR 50.47(b)(7) 10 CFR 50 Appendix E NUREG-0654/FEMA REP-1 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

5 “…Dose rates of radiation equivalent to one mammogram per hour have been measured at a location approximately one mile southwest of the plant.” Press Release # 3, 2008 Bi-Annual Full Participation Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Preparedness Exercise Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

6 Project Objective To compile information on best practices and knowledge on risk communication before, during, and after a radiological emergency at a nuclear power plant. To provide this information to nuclear power plant licensees and local emergency responders. (Note: This project is not regulation or evaluation criteria.) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

7 Compilation of best practice in risk and crisis communication.
Should not be seen at all as a new requirement. Use of these tools should help make your life easier.

8 Research and Practitioner Literature
Risk Communication Research and Practitioner Literature Over 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals Over 2000 Books by Scientific Publishers Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 8

9 Agenda Part I: Core Concepts Part 2: Templates
Part 3: Case Studies and Discussion Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

10 Definition Risk: “a threat of loss, real or perceived, to that which we value.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 10

11 Definition Risk: “a threat of loss, real or perceived, to that which we value.” Risk Communication: “the exchange of information about risks.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 11

12 Risk Communication: Definition
Is an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion among individuals, groups, and institutions Involves multiple messages about the nature of risk Involves messages not strictly about risk, such as legal and institutional arrangements for risk management Source: “Improving Risk Communication,” National Academy of Sciences, 1989 Discussion Points: 1. The majority of the two-way dialogue initially may come from the public We must first understand their concerns, interests and opinions before we can respond. 1-12 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication HERC Workshop Topic 1: Risk Communication Fundamentals Jan 2004 1-12

13 Mental Noise Threats (risks) produce stress Stress produces emotion
(e.g., anxiety, concern, worry, fear, anger, outrage) Stress and emotion produce mental noise, which can radically change the way people process information Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

14 Risk Communication Goals
enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate attitudes, behaviors and beliefs Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 14

15 Risk Communication: Key Messages
Risk communication is a science-based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 15

16 Risk Communication: Key Messages
Risk communication is a science-based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 16

17 Risk Communication Literature
Over 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 17

18 Risk Communication Literature: Example
Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello “Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook” World Health Organization, United Nations: Geneva, April 2007 (www.amazon.com or Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 18

19 “Communicating Radiation Risks”
Sample scenarios Pre-approved messages Lessons learned NOTES: Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 19

20 Risk Communication Literature: Example
“Five Essential Elements of Immediate and Mid-Term Mass Trauma Intervention: Empirical Evidence,” Psychiatry, 70(4): 2007 Authors: Steven Hobfoll et. al. Conclusion of Research Provide people a sense of: Hope Self- and community efficacy Safety Calm Connectedness Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication HERC v 3.1Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication HERC Workshop Topic 1: Risk Communication Fundamentals Jan 2004 1-20

21 Risk Communication: Resources
J. Lehrer, “How We Decide M. Gladwell, “Blink” R. Fisher, “Getting to Yes” D. Morris, “Body Talk: A Dictionary of Human Gestures” E. Tufte, “Visual Explanations” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

22 Risk Communication Literature: Example
“The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 22

23 Risk Communication: Key Messages
Risk communication is a science-based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 23

24 Risk Communication: Core Concepts
When people are stressed or concerned, they typically: …have difficulty, hearing, understanding, and remembering information …want to know that you care before they care what you know. …focus most on what they hear first and last. Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

25 Risk Communication: Core Concepts - continued
When people are stressed or concerned: …the gap between reason and emotion (risk perceptions) often becomes wider. …they typically focus much more on negative information than positive information. …they typically process information at four grades below their education level. …they typically seek out additional third party sources of credible information. Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

26 Risk Communication: Key Messages
Risk communication is a science-based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 26

27 Seven Step Risk Communication Strategy
Identify a risk communication issue or scenario Identify the primary stakeholders/target audience Identify potential questions or concerns Develop key messages using message mapping Develop supporting information for key messages Test and practice messages Deliver messages through appropriate communication channels Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

28 Risk Communication: Core Principles
“Most of the concerns and questions of upset or concerned people can be predicted and prepared for in advance.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 28

29 “It takes me an average of two weeks to prepare an impromptu speech.”
Mark Twain “It takes me an average of two weeks to prepare an impromptu speech.” Mark Twain Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

30 Stakeholder Predictability
“50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 30

31 Stakeholder Predictability
“77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster” (handout) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 31

32 Stakeholder Predictability
“65 Most Frequently Asked Questions about Pandemic Influenza” (www.pandemicflu.gov) “ 205 Most Frequently Asked Questions Following a Water Security or Water Contamination Event” (USEPA, Effective Risk Communication during Water Security Emergencies” EPA/600/R-07/027) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 32

33 Radiological Emergencies:
Project Finding Over 450 questions anticipated from the media and the public 14 categories of questions (for example, questions about evacuation, sheltering in place, health and safety, KI, and economic impacts) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 33

34 Risk Communication: Key Messages
Risk communication is a science-based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 34

35 Risk Communication Literature: Example
“The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 35

36 Stakeholder Question or Concern:
Message Map Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Support-ing Info. 1.1 Support-ing Info. 2.1 Support-ing Info. 3.1 Support-ing Info.. 1.2 Support-ing Info. 2.2 Support-ing Info. 3.2 Support-ing Info. 1.3 Support-ing Info. 2.3 : Support-ing Info. 3.3 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 36

37 “Remove Standing Water” “Wear Protective Clothing”
West Nile Virus Map Overarching Message Map Key Message “Remove Standing Water” Key Message “Wear Protective Clothing” Key Message “Use Insect Repellent” 1.1 Unattended swimming pools 2.1 Long Sleeves 3.1 DEET 1.2 Flower Pots/Bird Baths 2.2 Long Pants 3.2 23% 1.3 Cup of Water 2.3 Dusk and Dawn 3.3 Medical Research Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 37 HERC v 3.1Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication HERC Workshop Topic 1: Risk Communication Fundamentals Jan 2004 1-37

38 Agenda Part I: Core Concepts Part 2: Templates Part 3: Special Topics
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

39 Risk Communication Templates (see handout)
CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 39

40 Risk Communication/Message Mapping Templates
CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 40

41 Caring/Empathy Principle
“When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 41

42 The CCO Template Compassion Conviction Optimism
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

43 Trust Factors in High Stress Situations Competence/ Expertise 15-20%
Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Listening/ Caring/ Empathy/Compassion 50% Competence/ Expertise % All Other Factors 15-20% Honesty/ Openness % Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

44 Templates CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

45 Mental Noise (Attention Span)
20% 100 Mental noise can reduce the ability to process communication up to 80% Contact: CenterforRiskCommunication.org Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 45

46 Templates Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

47 Mental Noise: The Rule of 3
Everything in Threes Three Key Messages Repeat Messages Three Times (e.g., Triple T Model) Key Messages Supported by Three Supporting Messages or Three Credible Sources Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

48 Templates CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

49 The 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

50 Templates CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

51 Primacy/Recency Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

52 Primacy/Recency “When people are stressed and upset, they typically focus most on that which is said first (primacy) and last (recency).” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

53 Primacy/Recency Template
Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on linear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on primacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

54 Risk Communication Templates
CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

55 Risk Communication Templates
CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

56 AGL (Average Grade Level) Minus 4 (Four Grade Levels) Template
AGL-4 Template ======= AGL (Average Grade Level) Minus 4 (Four Grade Levels) Template “When people are stressed and upset, they typically process information at four grade levels below their average grade level.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

57 AGL-4 Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at
AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

58 Notification of Unusual Event
“Under this category, events are in process or have occurred which indicate potential degradation in the level of safety of the plant. No release of radioactive material requiring offsite response or monitoring is expected unless further degradation occurs.” Source: NRC Web Site Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 58

59 Message Maps Used to respond to high concern questions
Contain clear, concise, layered information Contain vetted or screened messages for anticipated questions Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 59

60 Message Mapping Goals Enhance knowledge and understanding
Build trust and credibility Encourage appropriate attitudes, behaviors and beliefs Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 60

61 Risk Communication Templates
CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

62 3 P (Positives) Template (Negative Dominance Principle)
1N=3P Template ==== 1N (Negative) Equals 3 P (Positives) Template “When people are stressed and upset, they typically focus more on the negative than on the positive.” (Negative Dominance Principle) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

63 1N=3P (Negative Dominance)
Avoid absolutes (e.g., never, always) Avoid Repeating Untrue Negatives/False Allegations Balance bad news with positive, constructive messages Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

64 No, Not, Never, Nothing, None
Negatives ==== No, Not, Never, Nothing, None Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

65 General K. Kiley, MedCom Commander, Walter Reed, Congressional Testimony
Q.: “Do you hold yourself accountable for the squalid conditions provided for wounded soldiers at Walter Reed” A.: “I’m trying not to say I’m not accountable.” Q.: “How could you not have known? A.: “I don’t do barracks inspections at Walter Reed.” Q. “Why did you do so little?” “Walter Reed is not my only command.” Source: March 6, 2007, Washington Post Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

66 Risk Communication Templates
CCO Rule of 3 27/9/3 Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P IDK Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

67 I.D.K. (I Don’t Know) Template
Repeat the question (optional) Say you don’t know/can’t answer/wish you could answer Give the reason you don’t know or can’t answer the question Indicate follow up Bridge to what you can say about the issue Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication HERC Workshop Topic 1: Risk Communication Fundamentals Jan 2004

68 “If I had all day to cut a large tree, I would spend most of the day
sharpening my axe.” - Abraham Lincoln Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 68

69 Risk Communication: Key Messages
Risk communication is a science-based discipline High concern situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 69 69

70 “It takes me an average of two weeks to prepare an impromptu speech.”
- Mark Twain Copyright Dr. V. Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication


Download ppt "Risk Communication – Principles, Tools, & Techniques"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google