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Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Core Slides Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Core Slides Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Core Slides Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York Core Slides Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York

2 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Definitions Risks: Definition “Threats to that which we value.” Risk Communication: Definition “The exchange of information about risks.” Risks: Definition “Threats to that which we value.” Risk Communication: Definition “The exchange of information about risks.”

3 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Goals enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate behaviors and levels of concern enhance knowledge and understanding build trust and credibility encourage appropriate behaviors and levels of concern

4 Risk Communication: Media Goals (CDC) Be first, be right, be credible Inform, not inflame Address rumors, inaccuracies, and misperceptions quickly Be first, be right, be credible Inform, not inflame Address rumors, inaccuracies, and misperceptions quickly

5 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Hypotheses “Most of the concerns and questions of upset people can be predicted in advance.” “When people are stressed and upset, they typically want to know that you care before they care what you know.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” Risk Communication Hypotheses “Most of the concerns and questions of upset people can be predicted in advance.” “When people are stressed and upset, they typically want to know that you care before they care what you know.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.”

6 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Hypotheses “Most of the concerns and questions of upset people can be predicted in advance.” “When people are stressed and upset, they typically want to know that you care before they care what you know.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” Risk Communication Hypotheses “Most of the concerns and questions of upset people can be predicted in advance.” “When people are stressed and upset, they typically want to know that you care before they care what you know.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.”

7 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” ========= Rule of 3 “When people are stress or upset, they typically can only process 3 messages at a time.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” ========= Rule of 3 “When people are stress or upset, they typically can only process 3 messages at a time.”

8 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Hypotheses “Most of the concerns and questions of upset people can be predicted in advance.” “When people are stressed and upset, they typically want to know that you care before they care what you know.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” Risk Communication Hypotheses “Most of the concerns and questions of upset people can be predicted in advance.” “When people are stressed and upset, they typically want to know that you care before they care what you know.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.”

9 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Stakeholder Predictability “50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients” Stakeholder Predictability “50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients”

10 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Stakeholder Predictability “50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients” “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster” Stakeholder Predictability “50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients” “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster”

11 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Stakeholder Predictability “50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients” “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster” “65 Most Frequently Asked Questions about Bird Flu and Pandemic Influenza” (pandemicflu.gov) Stakeholder Predictability “50 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Terminally Ill Patients” “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster” “65 Most Frequently Asked Questions about Bird Flu and Pandemic Influenza” (pandemicflu.gov)

12 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Exercise

13 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists and the Public in a Disaster” Types of Questions: Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions Types of Questions: Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions

14 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Types of Questions Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions

15 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Challenges/Traps/Pitfalls False Negative Questions Guarantee Questions What If (Worst Case Scenario) Questions False Negative Questions Guarantee Questions What If (Worst Case Scenario) Questions

16 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Challenge Questions: Do’s and Don’ts Don’t repeat a false negative Do repeat the opposite of the false negative Don’t repeat a false negative Do repeat the opposite of the false negative

17 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk communication is a science- based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

18 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk communication is a science- based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

19 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Risk Communication Literature

20 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Research Based Resources Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook World Health Organization, United Nations: Geneva, April 2007 (www.who.int/bookorders) Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook World Health Organization, United Nations: Geneva, April 2007 (www.who.int/bookorders)

21 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Resources Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies A Comprehensive Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Articles Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Section on Message Mapping Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies A Comprehensive Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Articles Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Section on Message Mapping

22 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Resources Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies A Comprehensive Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Articles Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Section on Message Mapping and Message Mapping Templates Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies A Comprehensive Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Articles Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Section on Message Mapping and Message Mapping Templates

23 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map Stakeholder Question or Concern : Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Support- ing Info. 1.1 Support- ing Info. 1.3 Support- ing Info Support- ing Info. 2.1 Support- ing Info. 2.2 Support- ing Info. 2.3 Support- ing Info. 3.1 Support- ing Info. 3.2 : Support- ing Info. 3.3

24 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Mapping 1.Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Pre-Event Maps for Avian Flu/Pandemic Influenza (www.pandemicflu.gov) 2.Multi-State Partnership for Agricultural Security: Message Maps for 30 Agricultural Scenarios 3. Environmental Protection Agency: Message Maps for 6 Water/Groundwater Contamination Scenarios (www.epa.gov/nhsrc) 1.Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Pre-Event Maps for Avian Flu/Pandemic Influenza (www.pandemicflu.gov) 2.Multi-State Partnership for Agricultural Security: Message Maps for 30 Agricultural Scenarios 3. Environmental Protection Agency: Message Maps for 6 Water/Groundwater Contamination Scenarios (www.epa.gov/nhsrc)

25 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication KDG Template (Overarching Message Map) (Know, Do, Go) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: What is most important for people to do Key Message 3: Where can people go to get credible information (Know, Do, Go) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: What is most important for people to do Key Message 3: Where can people go to get credible information

26 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

27 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions (Fear Factors) Lower Concern/Fear 1.Under one’s control 2.Trustworthy sources 3.Fair/large benefits Lower Concern/Fear 1.Under one’s control 2.Trustworthy sources 3.Fair/large benefits Higher Concern/Fear Controlled by others Untrustworthy sources Unfair/few or unclear benefits Involuntary

28 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Mapping Exercise

29 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Risk Communication Literature

30 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

31 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

32 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

33 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The APP Template Planning and Preparation “If I had all day to cut down a large tree, I would use most of the day sharpening my axe.” Abraham Lincoln “If I had all day to cut down a large tree, I would use most of the day sharpening my axe.” Abraham Lincoln

34 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Stakeholder Predictability “For most high stress situations, over 95 percent of stakeholder concerns and questions can be predicted in advance.” Stakeholder Predictability “For most high stress situations, over 95 percent of stakeholder concerns and questions can be predicted in advance.”

35 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Communication Regret

36 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

37 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Stakeholder Questions and Concerns Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Stakeholder Questions and Concerns

38 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

39 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Prepare 1. Messages 2. Messengers 3. Means Prepare 1. Messages 2. Messengers 3. Means APP Template

40 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Prepare 1. Messages 2. Messengers 3. Means Prepare 1. Messages 2. Messengers 3. Means APP Template

41 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Prepare Messages 1.Overarching Message (e.g., KDG) 1.Informational Messages 2.Challenge Question Messages Prepare Messages 1.Overarching Message (e.g., KDG) 1.Informational Messages 2.Challenge Question Messages

42 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

43 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The CCO Template Compassion Conviction Optimism Compassion Conviction Optimism

44 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Caring/Empathy “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.” Caring/Empathy “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.”

45 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Listening/ Caring/ Empathy/Compassion 50% Competence/ Expertise 15-20% Honesty/ Openness 15-20% All Other Factors 15-20% Trust Factors in High Stress Situations

46 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Models The Trust Determination Model The Attention Span/Mental Noise Model The Negative Dominance Model The Trust Determination Model The Attention Span/Mental Noise Model The Negative Dominance Model

47 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The CCO Template Compassion Conviction Optimism Compassion Conviction Optimism

48 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Mayor Giuliani, 9/11 “The number of casualties is more than any of us can bear ultimately.”

49 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

50 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages

51 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Attention Span/Mental Noise “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” ========= Rule of 3 “When people are stress or upset, they typically can only process 3 messages at a time.” “When people are stressed or upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information.” ========= Rule of 3 “When people are stress or upset, they typically can only process 3 messages at a time.”

52 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp Risk Communication: Attention Span Research

53 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication: Attention Span Research “The Magic Number Three, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Receiving, Processing, and Remembering Information in High Stress Situations” “The Magic Number Three, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Receiving, Processing, and Remembering Information in High Stress Situations”

54 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication High Stress Situations: Rule of 3 Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 7 messages High Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 3 messages Low Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 7 messages High Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 3 messages

55 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication The 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages

56 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 27/9/3 Template 27 words (total of 27 words for all three key messages, with each key message averaging 9 words in length) 9 seconds 3 messages 27 words (total of 27 words for all three key messages, with each key message averaging 9 words in length) 9 seconds 3 messages

57 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 27/9/3 Exercise: Tony Blair, Prime Minister 7/7/05 London Terrorist Bombing

58 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

59 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions TBC Template (Trust, Benefits, Control) Key Message 1: Trust Message Key Message 2: Benefits Message Key Message 3: Control Message TBC Template (Trust, Benefits, Control) Key Message 1: Trust Message Key Message 2: Benefits Message Key Message 3: Control Message

60 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perception Literature

61 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions “Perception equals reality.” “That which is perceived as real is real in its consequences.” “Perception equals reality.” “That which is perceived as real is real in its consequences.”

62 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “Facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public fears, perceptions, and concerns about risks.”

63 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions (Fear Factors) Lower Concern/Fear 1.Trustworthy sources 2.Large benefits 3.Under one’s control 4.Voluntary 5.Fair 6.Natural origin 7.Children not victims Lower Concern/Fear 1.Trustworthy sources 2.Large benefits 3.Under one’s control 4.Voluntary 5.Fair 6.Natural origin 7.Children not victims Higher Concern/Fear Untrustworthy sources Few or unclear benefits Controlled by others Involuntary Unfair Human origin Children as victims

64 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perception/Fear Factors Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control Choice Voice Knowledge (e.g. things for people to do) Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control Choice Voice Knowledge (e.g. things for people to do)

65 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication PERCEPTIONS OF RISK WEIGHTING FACTORS FactorWeight Trust 2000 Benefit 1000 Control 1000 WEIGHTING FACTORS FactorWeight Trust 2000 Benefit 1000 Control 1000

66 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions “The more you can do to increase perceived trust, the less the concern, worry, and anxiety.”

67 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions “The more you can do to increase perceived benefits and fairness, the less the concern, worry, and anxiety.”

68 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions “The more you can do to increase perceived control, the less the concern, worry, and anxiety.”

69 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Key Word Message Map West Nile Virus Map Key Message “Remove Standing Water” Key Message “Wear Protective Clothing” Key Message “Use Insect Repellent” : 3.3 Unattended swimming pools Long Sleeves Cup of Water Flower Pots/Bird Baths Long Pants Dusk and Dawn DEET 23% Medical Research

70 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Seven Step Model 1.Empathy/Caring 2.Key Messages (3) 3.Key Message 1 4.Key Message 2 5.Key Message 3 6.Repeat Key Messages (3) 7.Sources of Further Information 1.Empathy/Caring 2.Key Messages (3) 3.Key Message 1 4.Key Message 2 5.Key Message 3 6.Repeat Key Messages (3) 7.Sources of Further Information

71 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

72 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

73 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Literature: Templates KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P KDG APP CCO 27/9/3 TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

74 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

75 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

76 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Primacy/Recency Template “When people are stressed or upset, they typically focus most on what is said first (primacy) and last (recency).” Primacy/Recency Template “When people are stressed or upset, they typically focus most on what is said first (primacy) and last (recency).”

77 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Primacy/Recency Template Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on linear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on primacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2) Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on linear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on primacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2)

78 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

79 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication AGL-4 Template ======= AGL (Average Grade Level) Minus 4 (Four Grade Levels) Template “When people are stressed or upset, they typically process information at four grade levels below their average grade level.” AGL-4 Template ======= AGL (Average Grade Level) Minus 4 (Four Grade Levels) Template “When people are stressed or upset, they typically process information at four grade levels below their average grade level.”

80 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication AGL-4 Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels) Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels)

81 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P APP CCO 27/9/3 KDG TBC === Primacy/Recency AGL-4 1N=3P

82 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 1N=3P Template ==== 1N (Negative) Equals 3 P (Positives) Template “When people are stressed or upset, they typically focus more on the negative than on the positive.” (Negative Dominance Principle) 1N=3P Template ==== 1N (Negative) Equals 3 P (Positives) Template “When people are stressed or upset, they typically focus more on the negative than on the positive.” (Negative Dominance Principle)

83 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Negative Dominance High Stress Situations: 1N=3P (one negative on average equals three positives) Bad News Template: It takes on average 3 positives to balance one negative. High Stress Situations: 1N=3P (one negative on average equals three positives) Bad News Template: It takes on average 3 positives to balance one negative.

84 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Negatives ==== No, Not, Never, Nothing, None Negatives ==== No, Not, Never, Nothing, None

85 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Models The Stakeholder Predictability Model -- Templates: APP, KDG The Attention Span/Mental Noise Model -- Templates: 27/9/3, Primacy/Recency, AGL-4 The Trust Determination Model -- Templates: CCO, TBC The Negative Dominance Model -- Templates: 1N=3P The Stakeholder Predictability Model -- Templates: APP, KDG The Attention Span/Mental Noise Model -- Templates: 27/9/3, Primacy/Recency, AGL-4 The Trust Determination Model -- Templates: CCO, TBC The Negative Dominance Model -- Templates: 1N=3P

86 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK

87 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK

88 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals “When people are stressed or upset, a well constructed and presented visual can increase message attention, understanding, and recall by over 50 percent.” Visuals “When people are stressed or upset, a well constructed and presented visual can increase message attention, understanding, and recall by over 50 percent.”

89 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Visuals Graphics Analogies Story Telling Visuals Graphics Analogies Story Telling

90 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

91 Will H5N1 come to the US?

92 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

93

94 Resource Materials - Visuals Prof. Edward Tufte (Yale University) “Visual Explanations” “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.” “Envisioning Information.” Prof. Edward Tufte (Yale University) “Visual Explanations” “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.” “Envisioning Information.”

95 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK

96 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Credibility Ladder Most Credible Least Credible Most Credible Least Credible High Credibility Medium Credibility Low Credibility

97 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Credibility Transference “A lower credible source takes on the credibility of the highest credible source that agrees with its position on an issue.”

98 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Credibility Reversal “When a lower source attacks the credibility of a higher source, the lower source loses further credibility. The only information source that can effectively attack the credibility of another source is one of equal or higher credibility.” “When a lower source attacks the credibility of a higher source, the lower source loses further credibility. The only information source that can effectively attack the credibility of another source is one of equal or higher credibility.”

99 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK

100 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Non-Verbal Communications in High Stress Situations Provide up to 75 percent of message content Are intensely and quickly noticed Typically override verbal content Are typically interpreted negatively Provide up to 75 percent of message content Are intensely and quickly noticed Typically override verbal content Are typically interpreted negatively

101 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Resource Materials: Non-Verbal Communincation Prof. D. Morris, “Body Talk: A Dictionary of Human Gestures” Prof. P. Ekman, “Telling Lies: Clues to Deception” Prof. P. Ekman, “Emotions Revealed” Prof. D. Morris, “Body Talk: A Dictionary of Human Gestures” Prof. P. Ekman, “Telling Lies: Clues to Deception” Prof. P. Ekman, “Emotions Revealed”

102 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK

103 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Bridging

104 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Bridging Statements Examples: 1.“The most important thing for people to know is…” 2.“What all this boils down to is…” 3.“What needs to be emphasized is…” Bridging Statements Examples: 1.“The most important thing for people to know is…” 2.“What all this boils down to is…” 3.“What needs to be emphasized is…”

105 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Enhancements Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK Visuals Credible sources Non-verbal communication Bridging IDK

106 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication I.D.K. (I Don’t Know) Template I.D.K. (I Don’t Know) Template F(Repeat the Question) FSay You Don’t Know/Can’t Answer/Wish You Could Answer* FGive the Reason(s) Why You Don’t Know or Can’t Answer* FIndicate Follow Up with Deadline* F(Bridge to What You Can Say, Such as Overarching Message) F(Repeat the Question) FSay You Don’t Know/Can’t Answer/Wish You Could Answer* FGive the Reason(s) Why You Don’t Know or Can’t Answer* FIndicate Follow Up with Deadline* F(Bridge to What You Can Say, Such as Overarching Message)

107 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk communication is a science- based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk communication is a science- based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to risk communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk Communication: Key Messages Risk Communication: Key Messages

108 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Models The Stakeholder Predictability Model -- Templates: APP, KDG The Attention Span/Mental Noise Model -- Templates: 27/9/3, Primacy/Recency, AGL-4 The Trust Determination Model -- Templates: CCO, TBC The Negative Dominance Model -- Templates: 1N=3P The Stakeholder Predictability Model -- Templates: APP, KDG The Attention Span/Mental Noise Model -- Templates: 27/9/3, Primacy/Recency, AGL-4 The Trust Determination Model -- Templates: CCO, TBC The Negative Dominance Model -- Templates: 1N=3P


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