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Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Core Slides: Communicating in High Concern/Low Trust Situations: Applications to Water Security.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Core Slides: Communicating in High Concern/Low Trust Situations: Applications to Water Security."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Core Slides: Communicating in High Concern/Low Trust Situations: Applications to Water Security Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York Core Slides: Communicating in High Concern/Low Trust Situations: Applications to Water Security Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York

2 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Effective high concern/low trust communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success about is anticipation, preparation, and practice Effective high concern/low trust communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success about is anticipation, preparation, and practice High Concern/Low Trust Communication: Key Messages

3 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Risk and Crisis Communication

4 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Resources Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook World Health Organization: Geneva, 2006 Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook World Health Organization: Geneva, 2006

5 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Resources Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Comprehensive Bibliography and Resources Section A Section on Diversity Issues A Section on Message Mapping Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Comprehensive Bibliography and Resources Section A Section on Diversity Issues A Section on Message Mapping

6 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map

7 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Mapping: 7 Steps 1)Identify stakeholders for a specified emergency, crisis, or disaster event 2)Identify stakeholder questions and concerns 3)Identify common sets of concerns 4)Develop key messages 5)Develop supporting information 6)Conduct testing 7)Plan for delivery 1)Identify stakeholders for a specified emergency, crisis, or disaster event 2)Identify stakeholder questions and concerns 3)Identify common sets of concerns 4)Develop key messages 5)Develop supporting information 6)Conduct testing 7)Plan for delivery

8 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Mapping Resources 1. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati): Maps for Six Water Security Scenarios 2. “Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture”: Maps for Over 30 Agricultural Disaster Scenarios 3. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Maps for Over 65 Pandemic Influenza Questions (www.pandemicflu.gov, message maps)www.pandemicflu.gov 1. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati): Maps for Six Water Security Scenarios 2. “Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture”: Maps for Over 30 Agricultural Disaster Scenarios 3. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Maps for Over 65 Pandemic Influenza Questions (www.pandemicflu.gov, message maps)www.pandemicflu.gov

9 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) 8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Risk and Crisis Communication

10 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Proposition 1 “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.” Proposition 1 “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.”

11 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Proposition 2 “Facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public perceptions and concerns about risks.”

12 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions/Fear Factors: Radiation Risks are more feared if they are perceived as: Involuntary or imposed Unfair Inescapable/catastrophic Unfamiliar/dreaded Man made Threatens children Under the control of untrustworthy others Risks are more feared if they are perceived as: Involuntary or imposed Unfair Inescapable/catastrophic Unfamiliar/dreaded Man made Threatens children Under the control of untrustworthy others

13 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Proposition 3 “When people are stressed and upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering more than 3 messages at a time.” Proposition 3 “When people are stressed and upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering more than 3 messages at a time.”

14 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Rule of 3 (The Power of Three)

15 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Attention Span Research

16 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp Risk and Crisis Communication: Attention Span Research

17 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk and Crisis Communication: Attention Span Research “The Magic Number Three, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Receiving, Processing, and Remembering Information in High Stress Situations” “The Magic Number Three, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Receiving, Processing, and Remembering Information in High Stress Situations”

18 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Changes in Message Structure In High Stress Situations: Rule of 3 Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 7 messages High Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 3 messages Low Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 7 messages High Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 3 messages

19 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map

20 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

21 Attention Span T1T1 T2T2 Limits on Attention Span Start

22 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Effective risk and crisis communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Effective risk and crisis communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Risk and Crisis Communication: Key Messages Risk and Crisis Communication: Key Messages

23 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

24 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

25 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

26 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

27 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages

28 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

29 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication CCO Template Compassion Conviction Optimism Compassion Conviction Optimism

30 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know. Trust Model: Will Rodgers Quote

31 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Mayor Giuliani: Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

32 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

33 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “95 percent of concerns and questions for any crisis can be predicted in advance.” “95 % of all crisis messaging should be done prior to a crisis” “95% of all those who would communicate during a crisis should be trained prior to the event” ================= Crisis Communications Budget: 1/3 “95 percent of concerns and questions for any crisis can be predicted in advance.” “95 % of all crisis messaging should be done prior to a crisis” “95% of all those who would communicate during a crisis should be trained prior to the event” ================= Crisis Communications Budget: 1/3

34 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

35 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Questions and Concerns Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Questions and Concerns

36 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Questions and Concerns Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Questions and Concerns

37 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Questions and Concerns Anticipate 1.Scenarios 2.Stakeholders/Partners 3.Questions and Concerns

38 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster” Categories of Questions: Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions Categories of Questions: Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions

39 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster” Examples: 16. Who is in charge? 17. What can we expect next? 18. What are you advising people to do? Examples: 16. Who is in charge? 17. What can we expect next? 18. What are you advising people to do?

40 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Categories of Media Questions Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions

41 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Challenges/Traps/Pitfalls False Allegation Questions Guarantee Questions What If (Worst Case Scenario) Questions False Allegation Questions Guarantee Questions What If (Worst Case Scenario) Questions

42 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Key Behavioral Questions and Choices in Dirty Bomb and Other Public Health Emergencies Should I or should I not: Stay where I am Try to find my loved ones Gather with my neighbors Eat the food and drink the water Go to the hospital if I feel sick Take my pet with me if I leave Should I or should I not: Stay where I am Try to find my loved ones Gather with my neighbors Eat the food and drink the water Go to the hospital if I feel sick Take my pet with me if I leave

43 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare 3.Practice

44 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication APP Template 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare Messages 3.Practice Delivery of Messages 1.Anticipate 2.Prepare Messages 3.Practice Delivery of Messages

45 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

46 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Principles of Message Mapping Rule of 3 (The Power of Three)

47 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages

48 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Key Messages/Sound Bites 27/9/3 Template 27 words (total of 27 words for all three key messages, with each key message averaging 9 words in length) 9 seconds 3 messages 27/9/3 Template 27 words (total of 27 words for all three key messages, with each key message averaging 9 words in length) 9 seconds 3 messages

49 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map

50 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map Stakeholder Question or Concern : Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Support- ing Info. 1.1 Support- ing Info. 1.3 Support- ing Info Support- ing Info. 2.1 Support- ing Info. 2.2 Support- ing Info. 2.3 Support- ing Info. 3.1 Support- ing Info. 3.2 : Support- ing Info. 3.3

51 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Mapping Resources 1. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati): Maps for Six Water Security Scenarios 2. “Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture”: Maps for Over 30 Agricultural Disaster Scenarios 3. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Maps for Over 65 Pandemic Influenza Questions (www.pandemicflu.gov, message maps)www.pandemicflu.gov 1. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati): Maps for Six Water Security Scenarios 2. “Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture”: Maps for Over 30 Agricultural Disaster Scenarios 3. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Maps for Over 65 Pandemic Influenza Questions (www.pandemicflu.gov, message maps)www.pandemicflu.gov

52 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Crisis Communication Secrets APP 27/9/3 CCO APP 27/9/3 CCO

53 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication CCO Template Mayor Giuliani, 9/11 Compassion Conviction Optimism Mayor Giuliani, 9/11 Compassion Conviction Optimism

54 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Listening/ Caring/ Empathy/Compassion 50% Competence/ Expertise 15-20% Honesty/ Openness 15-20% All Other Factors 15-20% Trust Factors in High Stress Situations

55 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know. Trust Model: Will Rodgers Quote

56 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Message Map Templates 27/9/3 CCO AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) 27/9/3 CCO AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

57 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Templates 27/9/3 CCO AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) 27/9/3 CCO AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

58 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

59 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Templates AGL-4

60 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Changes in Message Structure In High Stress Situations: AGL-4 Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels) Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels)

61 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

62 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Changes in Message Structure: In High Stress Situations: Primacy/Recency Shift Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on linear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on primacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2) Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on linear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on primacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2)

63 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

64 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication IDK Template Key Message 1: IDK Key Message 2: DO Key Message 3: Know Key Message 1: IDK Key Message 2: DO Key Message 3: Know

65 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication IDK Template Key Message 1: IDK (State: “I don’t know…”; “I can’t answer that…” “I wish I could answer that…”) Key Message 2: Do (State: “We are doing x to find out.”; “The best person to answer that is…” Key Message 3: Know (State: 1-3 Things You Know: “What we do know is…”) Key Message 1: IDK (State: “I don’t know…”; “I can’t answer that…” “I wish I could answer that…”) Key Message 2: Do (State: “We are doing x to find out.”; “The best person to answer that is…” Key Message 3: Know (State: 1-3 Things You Know: “What we do know is…”)

66 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Communication Templates AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

67 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication 1N=3P Negative Dominance Literature

68 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Changes in Message Content in In High Stress Situations:: Negative Dominance Shift Low Stress Situations: 1N = 1P (one negative on average equals one positive) High Stress Situations: 1N=3P (one negative on average equals three positives) Bad News Template: It takes on average 3 positives to balance one negative. Low Stress Situations: 1N = 1P (one negative on average equals one positive) High Stress Situations: 1N=3P (one negative on average equals three positives) Bad News Template: It takes on average 3 positives to balance one negative.

69 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Templates AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)

70 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication P=R+E Risk Perception Literature

71 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication P=R+E (P)erceptions of Risk = (R)eality + (E)motional Factors

72 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication “Research indicates that facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public perceptions and concerns about risks.”

73 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions/Fear Factors Risks are more feared if they are perceived as: Involuntary or imposed Unfair Inescapable Unfamiliar Man made Threaten children Under the control of untrustworthy others Risks are more feared if they are perceived as: Involuntary or imposed Unfair Inescapable Unfamiliar Man made Threaten children Under the control of untrustworthy others

74 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Perception/Outrage/Emotional Factors Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control Choice Voice Knowledge (e.g. things for people to do) Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control Choice Voice Knowledge (e.g. things for people to do)

75 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions The more you do to increase: perceived trust, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) perceived benefits/fairness, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) perceived control, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) The more you do to increase: perceived trust, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) perceived benefits/fairness, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) perceived control, the less the concern (worry, anxiety)

76 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions TBC Template (Trust, Benefits, Control) Key Message 1: Trust Message Key Message 2: Benefits Message Key Message 3: Control Message TBC Template (Trust, Benefits, Control) Key Message 1: Trust Message Key Message 2: Benefits Message Key Message 3: Control Message

77 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions -- Control KDG Template (Know, Do, Go) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: What is most important for people to do Key Message 3: Where can people go to get credible information KDG Template (Know, Do, Go) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: What is most important for people to do Key Message 3: Where can people go to get credible information

78 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions -- Control KGD Template (Know, Go, Do) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: Where can people go to get credible information Key Message 3: What is most important for people to do KGD Template (Know, Go, Do) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: Where can people go to get credible information Key Message 3: What is most important for people to do

79 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Risk Perceptions -- Trust LAG Template (Logic, Authority, Emotion) Key Message 1: Appeal to Logic Key Message 2: Appeal to Authority Key Message 3: Appeal to Emotion LAG Template (Logic, Authority, Emotion) Key Message 1: Appeal to Logic Key Message 2: Appeal to Authority Key Message 3: Appeal to Emotion

80 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Authority/Credibility Ladder Most Credible Least Credible Most Credible Least Credible High Credibility Medium Credibility Low Credibility

81 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Credibility Transference “A lower credible source takes on the credibility of the highest credible source that agrees with its position on an issue.”

82 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Credibility Reversal “When a lower source attacks the credibility of a higher source, the lower source loses further credibility. The only information source that can effectively attack the credibility of another source is one of equal or higher credibility.” “When a lower source attacks the credibility of a higher source, the lower source loses further credibility. The only information source that can effectively attack the credibility of another source is one of equal or higher credibility.”

83 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals Humor Non-verbals Visuals

84 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals Humor Non-verbals Visuals

85 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals Humor Non-verbals Visuals

86 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Non-Verbal Communication 75/25 Shift Negative Dominance Diversity/Cross Cultural Effects Non-Verbal Communication 75/25 Shift Negative Dominance Diversity/Cross Cultural Effects

87 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals Humor Non-verbals Visuals

88 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Visuals Graphics Analogies Story Telling ====== Non-Verbal Communication Visuals Graphics Analogies Story Telling ====== Non-Verbal Communication

89 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Resource Materials - Visuals Prof. Edward Tufte (Yale University) “Visual Explanations” “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.” “Envisioning Information.” Prof. Edward Tufte (Yale University) “Visual Explanations” “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.” “Envisioning Information.”

90 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Special Topics Prof. Paul Ekman “Telling Lies: Clues to Deception” “Emotions Revealed” Prof. Paul Ekman “Telling Lies: Clues to Deception” “Emotions Revealed”

91 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication Effective high concern/low trust communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success about is anticipation, preparation, and practice Effective high concern/low trust communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success about is anticipation, preparation, and practice High Concern/Low Trust Communication: Key Messages


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