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Center for Risk Communication

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Presentation on theme: "Center for Risk Communication"— Presentation transcript:

1 Center for Risk Communication
Core Slides: Communicating in High Concern/Low Trust Situations: Applications to Water Security Dr. Vincent T. Covello Director Center for Risk Communication New York, New York Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

2 High Concern/Low Trust Communication: Key Messages
Effective high concern/low trust communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success about is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

3 Risk and Crisis Communication
8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

4 Resources Dr. R. Hyer and Dr. V. Covello Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook World Health Organization: Geneva, 2006 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

5 Resources Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies Over 1000 Do’s and Don’ts (With Explanations) A Comprehensive Bibliography and Resources Section A Section on Diversity Issues A Section on Message Mapping Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

6 Message Map Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

7 Message Mapping: 7 Steps
Identify stakeholders for a specified emergency, crisis, or disaster event Identify stakeholder questions and concerns Identify common sets of concerns Develop key messages Develop supporting information Conduct testing Plan for delivery Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

8 Message Mapping Resources
1. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati): Maps for Six Water Security Scenarios 2. “Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture”: Maps for Over 30 Agricultural Disaster Scenarios 3. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Maps for Over 65 Pandemic Influenza Questions (www.pandemicflu.gov, message maps) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

9 Risk and Crisis Communication
8000 Articles in Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals 2000 Books Reviews of the Literature by Major Scientific Organizations (e.g., National Academy of Sciences) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

10 Proposition 1 “When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

11 Proposition 2 “Facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public perceptions and concerns about risks.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

12 Risk Perceptions/Fear Factors: Radiation
Risks are more feared if they are perceived as: Involuntary or imposed Unfair Inescapable/catastrophic Unfamiliar/dreaded Man made Threatens children Under the control of untrustworthy others Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

13 Proposition 3 “When people are stressed and upset, they often have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering more than 3 messages at a time.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

14 Rule of 3 (The Power of Three)
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

15 Attention Span Research
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

16 Risk and Crisis Communication: Attention Span Research
“The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information” George A. Miller (Department of Psychology, Princeton University) The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

17 Risk and Crisis Communication: Attention Span Research
“The Magic Number Three, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Receiving, Processing, and Remembering Information in High Stress Situations” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

18 Changes in Message Structure In High Stress Situations: Rule of 3 Shift
Low Stress Situations: Brain can hold on average 7 messages High Stress Situations: 3 messages Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

19 Message Map Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

20 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

21 Attention Span T1 Start Limits on Attention Span T2
Probably culturally sensitive as is Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

22 Risk and Crisis Communication:
Key Messages Effective risk and crisis communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

23 Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

24 Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

25 APP Template Anticipate Prepare Practice
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

26 Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

27 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

28 Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

29 CCO Template Compassion Conviction Optimism
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

30 Trust Model: Will Rodgers Quote
When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know. Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

31 Mayor Giuliani: Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

32 APP Template Anticipate Prepare Practice
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

33 “95 % of all crisis messaging should be done prior to a crisis”
“95 percent of concerns and questions for any crisis can be predicted in advance.” “95 % of all crisis messaging should be done prior to a crisis” “95% of all those who would communicate during a crisis should be trained prior to the event” ================= Crisis Communications Budget: 1/3 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

34 APP Template Anticipate Prepare Practice
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

35 Anticipate Scenarios Stakeholders/Partners Questions and Concerns
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

36 Anticipate Scenarios Stakeholders/Partners Questions and Concerns
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

37 Anticipate Scenarios Stakeholders/Partners Questions and Concerns
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

38 “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster”
Categories of Questions: Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

39 “77 Most Frequently Asked Questions by Journalists in a Disaster”
Examples: 16. Who is in charge? 17. What can we expect next? 18. What are you advising people to do? Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

40 Categories of Media Questions
Factual Questions Emotionally Charged Questions Challenge, Trap, and Pitfall Questions Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

41 Challenges/Traps/Pitfalls
False Allegation Questions Guarantee Questions What If (Worst Case Scenario) Questions Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

42 Key Behavioral Questions and Choices in Dirty Bomb and Other Public Health Emergencies
Should I or should I not: Stay where I am Try to find my loved ones Gather with my neighbors Eat the food and drink the water Go to the hospital if I feel sick Take my pet with me if I leave Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

43 APP Template Anticipate Prepare Practice
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

44 APP Template Anticipate Prepare Messages Practice Delivery of Messages
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

45 Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

46 Principles of Message Mapping Rule of 3 (The Power of Three)
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

47 Crisis Communication 27/9/3 Template 27 words 9 seconds 3 messages
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

48 Key Messages/Sound Bites
27/9/3 Template 27 words (total of 27 words for all three key messages, with each key message averaging 9 words in length) 9 seconds 3 messages Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

49 Message Map Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

50 Stakeholder Question or Concern:
Message Map Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Key Message 9 words on average Support-ing Info. 1.1 Support-ing Info. 2.1 Support-ing Info. 3.1 Support-ing Info.. 1.2 Support-ing Info. 2.2 Support-ing Info. 3.2 Support-ing Info. 1.3 Support-ing Info. 2.3 : Support-ing Info. 3.3 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

51 Message Mapping Resources
1. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati): Maps for Six Water Security Scenarios 2. “Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture”: Maps for Over 30 Agricultural Disaster Scenarios 3. Department of Health and Human Services/CDC: Maps for Over 65 Pandemic Influenza Questions (www.pandemicflu.gov, message maps) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

52 Crisis Communication Secrets
APP 27/9/3 CCO Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

53 CCO Template Mayor Giuliani, 9/11 Compassion Conviction Optimism
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

54 Trust Factors in High Stress Situations Competence/ Expertise 15-20%
Assessed in first 9-30 seconds Listening/ Caring/ Empathy/Compassion 50% Competence/ Expertise % All Other Factors 15-20% Honesty/ Openness % Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

55 Trust Model: Will Rodgers Quote
When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know. Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

56 Message Map Templates 27/9/3 CCO AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P
P=(R)+(E) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

57 Templates 27/9/3 CCO AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

58 Risk Communication Templates
AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

59 Templates AGL-4 Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

60 Changes in Message Structure In High Stress Situations: AGL-4 Shift
Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information at AGL (average grade level) High Stress Situations: AGL-4 (average grade level minus 4 grade levels) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

61 Risk Communication Templates
AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

62 Changes in Message Structure: In High Stress Situations: Primacy/Recency Shift
Low Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on linear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3) High Stress Situations: Brain processes information based on primacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

63 Risk Communication Templates
AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

64 IDK Template Key Message 1: IDK Key Message 2: DO Key Message 3: Know
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

65 IDK Template Key Message 1: IDK (State:
“I don’t know…”; “I can’t answer that…” “I wish I could answer that…”) Key Message 2: Do (State: “We are doing x to find out.”; “The best person to answer that is…” Key Message 3: Know (State: 1-3 Things You Know: “What we do know is…”) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

66 Risk Communication Templates
AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

67 1N=3P Negative Dominance Literature
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

68 Changes in Message Content in In High Stress Situations:: Negative Dominance Shift
Low Stress Situations: 1N = 1P (one negative on average equals one positive) High Stress Situations: 1N=3P (one negative on average equals three positives) Bad News Template: It takes on average 3 positives to balance one negative. Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

69 Templates AGL-4 Primacy/Recency IDK 1N=3P P=(R)+(E)
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

70 P=R+E Risk Perception Literature
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

71 P=R+E (P)erceptions of Risk = (R)eality + (E)motional Factors
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

72 “Research indicates that facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public perceptions and concerns about risks.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

73 Risk Perceptions/Fear Factors
Risks are more feared if they are perceived as: Involuntary or imposed Unfair Inescapable Unfamiliar Man made Threaten children Under the control of untrustworthy others Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

74 Perception/Outrage/Emotional Factors
Trust Listening/Caring Competence/Expertise Honesty/Transparency Benefits/Fairness Societal Community Personal Control Choice Voice Knowledge (e.g. things for people to do) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

75 Risk Perceptions The more you do to increase:
perceived trust, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) perceived benefits/fairness, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) perceived control, the less the concern (worry, anxiety) Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

76 Risk Perceptions TBC Template (Trust, Benefits, Control)
Key Message 1: Trust Message Key Message 2: Benefits Message Key Message 3: Control Message Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

77 Risk Perceptions -- Control
KDG Template (Know, Do, Go) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: What is most important for people to do Key Message 3: Where can people go to get credible information Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

78 Risk Perceptions -- Control
KGD Template (Know, Go, Do) Key Message 1: What is most important for people to know Key Message 2: Where can people go to get credible information Key Message 3: What is most important for people to do Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

79 Risk Perceptions -- Trust
LAG Template (Logic, Authority, Emotion) Key Message 1: Appeal to Logic Key Message 2: Appeal to Authority Key Message 3: Appeal to Emotion Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

80 Authority/Credibility Ladder
Most Credible Least Credible High Credibility Medium Credibility Low Credibility Teaching Points: Trust takes the form of credibility in communication A credibility ladder, based on research, is essential in planning for and conducting high concern communications This is an example of a credibility ladder – nationwide survey, EHS topic Why would this ranking work out this way? Why would this be important? Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

81 Credibility Transference
“A lower credible source takes on the credibility of the highest credible source that agrees with its position on an issue.” Teaching Points: This is fairly intuitive, we see it every day This is the basis of celebrity endorsements in advertising and politics From what position on the credibility ladder are endorsers drawn? Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

82 Credibility Reversal “When a lower source attacks the credibility of a higher source, the lower source loses further credibility. The only information source that can effectively attack the credibility of another source is one of equal or higher credibility.” Teaching Points: This is not so intuitive What is our reflexive response when our position is publicly attacked – often erroneously? What is the result when we attempt to “set the record straight” from a lower position on the credibility ladder? What are our options for being more effective? Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

83 Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

84 Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

85 Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

86 Special Topics Non-Verbal Communication 75/25 Shift Negative Dominance
Diversity/Cross Cultural Effects Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

87 Special Topics Humor Non-verbals Visuals
Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

88 Special Topics Visuals Graphics Analogies Story Telling ======
Non-Verbal Communication Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

89 Resource Materials - Visuals
Prof. Edward Tufte (Yale University) “Visual Explanations” “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.” “Envisioning Information.” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

90 Special Topics Prof. Paul Ekman “Telling Lies: Clues to Deception”
“Emotions Revealed” Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication

91 High Concern/Low Trust Communication: Key Messages
Effective high concern/low trust communication is a science-based discipline High stress situations change the rules of communication The key to communication success about is anticipation, preparation, and practice Copyright, Dr. V Covello, Center for Change/Risk Communication


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