4SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
13Jamestown SettlementIn April 1607, settlers sent by the Virginia Company in London entered Chesapeake Bay and founded Jamestown.They faced many hardships.For example, they found no gold nor did they establish the fish or fur trading expected of them by the Virginia Company investors.The number of colonists dwindled.
14Essential QuestionExplain some of the hardships that the colonists faced in the first year of settling Jamestown.5 minutes
15Jamestown Settlement (cont.) Captain John Smith arrived in 1608 to govern the colonists.The Virginia Company installed yet another leader to govern them after Smith.A harsh winter and more trouble continued to plague the colonists.
16Jamestown Settlement (cont.) When the colonists discovered how to grow tobacco, the colony began to prosper.Relations with the Native Americans living nearby also improved when one of the colonists, John Rolfe, married Pocahontas, the daughter of Chief Powhatan.
18Jamestown Settlement (cont.) The Virginia Company allowed a representative government in which ten towns in the colony each sent two representatives, or burgesses, to an assembly.The assembly made local laws.The House of Burgesses met for the first time on July 30, 1619.End of day 1Cooperative learning: Analyze the decisions that were made in the attempt to settle Jamestown. Address a report to the Virginia Company and include a list of suggestions for future attempts to set up a colony. Include suggestions for duplicating successes and avoiding mistakes.
19Essential QuestionExplain what the House of Burgesses was.
20Indentured Servitude Institution ( ))Headright System: Plantation owners were given 50 acres for every indentured servant they sponsored to come to America.Indentured Contract: Served plantation owner for 7 years as a laborer in return for passage to America.Freedom Dues: Once servant completed his contract, he/she was freed….They often did not get voting rights.
21INDENTURED SERVANT vs. SLAVERY What factors led to the introduction of African slavery replacing indentured servitude as the labor force in the American Colonies?
22HOW SLAVERY CAME TO THE U.S. Indentured ServantsIndentured servants became the first means to meet the need for labor.In return for free passage to Virginia, a laborer worked in the fields before being granted freedom.The Crown rewarded planters with 50 acres of land for every inhabitant they brought to the New World.Naturally, the colony began to expand.That expansion was soon challenged by the Native American confederacy formed and named after Powhatan
23Indentured ServitudeMany indentured servants died before gaining their freedom.Of those that became free, less than half acquired their own land. They became tenant farmers, working land they rented from the planter elite.Those that acquired land often operated through subsistence farming.
24Slavery has been practiced since the beginning of documented history. HOW SLAVERY CAME TO THE U.S.Slavery has been practiced since the beginning of documented history.Slavery introduced by the Spanish into the West Indies after Columbus’s discovery of America.Spanish and Portuguese expanded African slavery into Central and South American after enslaved Indians began dying off.In 1619, the first recorded introduction of African slaves into what would become the United States was in the settlement of Jamestown……Only 20 slaves were purchased….Slaves captured in AfricaSlaves aboard ship—Middle Passage
25This is called the Middle Passage BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERYThis is called the Middle Passage
27Southern SocietySociety in the South became divided by the late 1600s. Wealthy landowners (Southern gentry) were at the top of the class structure while poor backcountry farmers (yeomen), landless tenant farmers, and servants were at the bottom.This uneven distribution of wealth led to rebellion.
28Bacon’s Rebellion ( )Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants.Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown
29BACON'S REBELLION Involved former indentured servants Not accepted in JamestownDisenfranchised and unable to receive their landGov. Berkeley would not defend settlements from Indian attacks
30Nathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebels BACON'S REBELLIONNathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebelsGov. Berkeley refused to meet their conditions and erupts into a civil war.Bacon dies, Gov. Berkeley puts down rebellion and several rebels are hung
31Consequences of Bacon’s Rebellion Virginia’s government increased support for westward expansion, regardless of the impact on Native Americans. Land = peaceAfrican slavery increased dramatically, replacing indentured servitude.Enslaved workers did not have to be freed and would never need their own land.Cheap land became available in other colonies, reducing the need for settlers to become indentured servants.The English government adopted policies that encouraged slavery.
32African American Culture Grew in America as slaves attempted to “make the best” of their lives while living under the worst of circumstances.Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket-weaving, and pottery-making. Enslaved Africans brought with them the arts and crafts skills of their various tribes as well as advanced farming techniques.Indeed, there could be a hundred slaves working on one farm and each slave might come from a different tribe and a different part of Africa.End of day 2
33SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.
34MarylandCatholics in England did not accept the King as the head of the Church.Lord Baltimore founded Maryland.Catholics wanted to practice their faith without persecution.Proprietary colony: Lord Baltimore owned Maryland and could govern as he saw fit.Most settlers were Protestant.Official policy of religious toleration.Tensions between Catholic minority and Protestant majority.
35PlymouthSeparatists: Puritans who broke away from the Anglican Church to form their own congregations.Persecuted by the English government, fled to Holland, then to the New World.Mayflower – Landed in MassachusettsSquanto helped them survive.
36PURITANS John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Middle class settlers, educated and organizedSuccessful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuildersRuled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracyNew England Way = Puritan covenant with GodTo establish holy society----”City upon a hill”
40Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island New Englandgood harborssmall farms and townstrade centered around harborshilly, forested and shallow soilcities: Boston15,000 – 1750fishing, lumber and trappingFamily, religion and communityMassachusettsNew HampshireRhode IslandConnecticut
42Building the Bay Colony Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher percentage than in England)Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential
43Building the Bay Colony Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell
44Trouble in Bible Colony (Puritan Rebels) Roger Williams:Extreme Separatist, denied right of civil government to govern religious behavior, challenged charter for illegally taking land from IndiansAvoided exile to England by fleeing to Rhode Island (Providence) where in 1636, aided by Indians, he started a colony in the Providence areaStarted the first Baptist churchAllowed complete freedom of religionRoger WilliamsSeparation of Church and State.
45Trouble in Bible Colony (Puritan Rebels) Social harmony when only Puritans, but that didn’t lastQuakers: fines, floggings, banishments, executionsAnne Hutchinson: truly saved don’t need to obey (“antinomianism” the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)Banished as a heretic.Travels to Rhode Island with her children and helps organize this settlement
46New England Spreads Out 1635: Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker1639: Fundamental Orders – first written Constitution of the American colonies
47Half-Way Covenant 1st generation’s Puritan zeal diluted over time Problem of declining church membership1662: Half-Way Covenant – partial membership to those not yet converted (usually children/ grandchildren of members)Eventually all welcomed to church, erased distinction of “elect”
48King Philip’s WarColonial governments demanded that Native Americans follow English laws.Plymouth colony executed three Wampanoag warriors for a murder.Wampanoag warriors resp0nded by attacking the town of Swansea.Wampanoag leader, Metacomet, was called King Philip by settlers.
49KING PHILIP'S WAR Metacomet was killed. Settlers won the war. Few Native Americans remained in New England after the war.
50Essential QuestionWho was Roger Williams and why is he important?
51What do we know about the Salem Witchcraft Trials?
52How it started . . . Betty Parris became strangely ill. She dashed about, dove under furniture, contorted in pain, and complained of fever.The cause of her symptoms may have been some combination of stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis.Talk of witchcraft increased when other playmates of Betty, including eleven-year-old Ann Putnam, seventeen-year-old Mercy Lewis, and Mary Walcott, began to exhibit similar unusual behavior.A doctor called to examine the girls, suggested that the girls' problems might have a supernatural origin.The widespread belief that witches targeted children made the doctor's diagnosis seem increasingly likely. -Douglas Linder
53Causes of Witchcraft Hysteria in Salem 1. Strong belief that Satan is acting in the world "The invisible world": disease, natural catastrophes, and bad fortune2. A belief that Satan actively recruits witches and wizards Prior witchcraft cases3. A belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain symptoms.4. A time of troubles, making it seem likely that Satan was active Congregational strife in Salem Village Frontier wars with Indians5. Stimulation of imaginations by Tituba (slave).6. Teenage boredom.7. Confessing "witches" adding credibility to earlier charges.8. Old feuds (disputes within congregation, property disputes) between the accusers and the accused spurring charges of witchcraft.
54Witch CakeTituba, a slave from Barbados, makes a witch cake, drawing suspicion on herself.A witch cake is composed of rye meal mixed with urine from the afflicted children. It is then fed to a dog.The person is considered bewitched if the dog displays similar symptoms as the afflicted.
55Spectral Evidence“The girls contorted into grotesque poses, fell down into frozen postures, and complained of biting and pinching sensations. In a village where everyone believed that the devil was real, close at hand, and acted in the real world, the suspected affliction of the girls became an obsession.” - Douglas Linder
56The TrialsBy the end of 1692, over 200 people were jailed and standing accused of witchcraft.
57Hysteria StrikesNineteen men and women were hanged, all having been convicted of witchcraftAnother man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft chargesMany languished in jail for months without trialsAt least four died in prison
58Why the Hysteria Ended1. Doubts grow when respected citizens are convicted and executed Rebecca Nurse (jury first acquits, then told to reconsider) George Burroughs (recites Lord's Prayer perfectly at hanging)2. Accusations of witchcraft include the powerful and well-connected Wife of Governor Phips (and others)3. The educated elite of Boston pressure Gov. Phips to exclude spectral evidence Increase Mather points out the Devil could take the shape of an innocent person: "It were better that 10 suspected witches should escape than one innocent person should be condemned."4. Gov. Phips bars spectral evidence and disbands the Court
59SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
61."bread basket" large farms - surplus food Middle ColoniesRiver systemsValleys – fertile soil."bread basket" large farms - surplus fooddiverse populationmanufacturingiron mines, glass, shipyards, and paperCities: New York and Philadelphia
63New Netherland (New York) 1609: Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India Company sails into Hudson river looking for passage through continent ~ claims area for Dutch: Dutch East India Company establishes New NetherlandGoal: quick-profit fur trade“Bought” Manhattan from IndiansCompany town: no religious tolerance or free speech, harsh governors
64New NetherlandColony had aristocratic influence (a member of a ruling class or of the nobility) with large feudal estates (“patroonships” – one larger than Rhode Island)Very diverse population: in 1640s missionary observed 18 languages
65Land Grants Patroonships similar to the feudal system New YorkManors &Land Grants Patroonships similar to the feudal system
68Dutch ConflictsDutch cruelties to Indians brought retaliatory massacres – Dutch built wall (Wall Street)Connecticut rejected Dutch settlers
69Dutch in New YorkAn Angry Peter StuyvesantEnglish immigration to New Netherland resulted in 1/2 total population - English regarded Dutch as intrudersCharles II brazenly granted area to his brother (Duke of York)English squadron comes, New Netherland leader, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New York had no defense; he surrendered, it was renamed New YorkDuke of York
70Mid-1600s: religious dissenters named Quakers arose in England Penn's Holy ExperimentMid-1600s: religious dissenters named Quakers arose in EnglandHated by authorities because they refused to pay taxes to Church of England, refused to take oaths, refused military service
71Penn's Holy ExperimentPenn’s family owed a large debt from the British Crown. Given a land grant in PennsylvaniaPenn governs the colony, unusual for a proprietorAdvertised in Europe, promising land & freedomsFrame of Government (guaranteed elected assembly), Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open immigration), fair treatment of Native Americans
74Penn's Holy ExperimentThat an example may be set up to the nations as ... a holy experiment. William PennAll men have a natural and infeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishment or modes of worship. - William Penn, Declaration of Rights
75Pennsylvania & Neighbors Penn bought land from Indians ~ treatment of them so fair that Quakers went to them unarmed and even employed Indians as babysittersHowever, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish)Liberal features: elected assembly, no tax-supported church, freedom of worship
76DelawareWilliam PennPenn granted the lower 3 counties of Pennsylvania their own assemblyGovernor was the same as Pennsylvania’s until the American Revolution
78North Carolina Founded by allies of King Charles II Land grant to friends and political allies of King Charles IISmall population, mostly farmers, came from VirginiaDid not have a good harbor and the coastline was hard to reach, so the colony grew slowlyGrew tobacco, exported tar, pitch, and turpentine (naval supplies)
79South Carolina Founded by allies of King Charles II Land grant to friends and allies of King Charles II as a financial venture – primarily sugar plantationsSugar cane did not grow well.Exported deerskin (leather)The colony captured Native Americans and shipped them to the Caribbean (slaves)
80Georgia Founded by James Oglethorpe. Land granted to enable imprisoned debtors to begin a new life.Also served as a buffer from Spanish FloridaSlavery, rum, and brandy was originally banned.Diverse population (Scots, Welsh, Germans, Swiss, Italians, a few Portuguese Jews)