2The Articles of Confederation Section 1The Articles of Confederation
3State Constitutions A constitution is a plan of government At the beginning of the war, each state was asked to create their own constitutions by the continental congressStates wanted to limit the power of the executive (leader)People were elected to office (voted in)
4Popular PoliticsState constitutions restricted the power of governors – Person in charge of a stateThis made legislatures in charge. They are the people that make laws (smaller congresses)Once the state governments were set up, the citizens believed America should be a republic – or a government which citizens rule through elected representatives.
5Power for the States…Initially The people originally wanted states to act like small countries, united by a weaker central governmentThe second continental congress developed the Articles of Confederation
6Articles of Confederation Under this, the states had most of the power, but the government had the authority to conduct foreign affairs, maintain armed forces, borrow money, and issue currencyThe government would not be able to regulate trade, force soldiers to join the army, or impose taxes.The government would have to ask permission to the states for any of the above, and had no chief executive.
7Approving the Articles Under the plan, each state had one vote in the Confederation CongressLarge states with more people thought they should have more votesStates also argued about rights for the western landEventually all states agreed on the articles
8Problems with the Articles Congress could not pass a law unless 9 states voted in favor of it.There was no provision for allowing new states from the Western TerritoryEventually they decided to allow states when a territories population reached that of the smallest existing state.
9Ordinance of 1785In 1785, an ordinance or law was passed which divided the land up into townships 6 miles long and wide, then divided into 36 sections of 640 acres each.In 1787 The Northwest Ordinance divided the northwest land into 5 lands. When the population of each land reached 60,000 people, each territory could apply for statehood.
10Northwest OrdinanceThe dividing of land would eventually create Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and OhioThe ordinance included a bill of rights for settlers, guaranteeing freedom of religion and trial by jury.The government banned slavery as well
11Financial ProblemsBy 1781, the money printed during the Revolution had depreciated or lost value to the point where it was completely worthlessThe confederation could not pay back the war debts.It requested money from states, but they only provided roughly 1/6 of the money neededE
12Solution Shot DownA merchant named Robert Morris suggested collecting a 5% tax on imported goods to help pay the national debt.It required all states approving it, but Rhode Island shot it downThe financial crisis got worse
13Problems with BritainBritain kept their troops in certain forts in the great lakes areaHowever, Britain claimed America was in violation of the Treaty of Paris for not paying loyalists for property taken from them during the revolution.The congress recommended to pay the loyalists, but the states refused.
14Problems of SpainSpain was even more upset at Americans going west into their territoryThey closed the lower Mississippi River to American Shipping in 1784The government compromised to limit American shipping in return for Spain accepting the border between Georgia and Florida.The Southern States rejected the agreement, because they wanted full use of the Mississippi
15The Weak Articles of Confederation The Government that the Articles of Confederation had created was very weakGeorge Washington described the government as, “Little more than the shadow without the substance”Many Americans now called for a stronger national government
16Convention and Compromise Section 2Convention and Compromise
17DepressionAmerica went through a depression after the war, or a period when economic activity slows and unemployment increases.Southern Plantations were damaged during the warRice exports dropped SharplyFarmers could not sell their goods, and many were arrested for not paying their debt
18Trouble in Massachusetts Farmers saw the government as another form of tyrannyDaniel Shays and other angry farmers took the law into their own hands and forced courts to close so no one could take their landHe then led his army to a federal arsenal of weapons
19Shays RebellionThe guards fired over the heads of the mob, over and over but the mob didn’t stopEventually they fired and killed 4 farmersShays Rebellion was over, but Americans were now worried their government could not protect them from violence.
20SlaveryBetween 1784 and 1804, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey outlawed slaveryThis divided the country because slavery was still a large part of the Southern economy
21Call for ReformNow there was a demand for a change to the Articles of ConfederationJames Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, came to Philadelphia for changeGeorge Washington, originally against changing the Articles, changed his mind after Shays Rebellion
22The Constitutional Convention Representatives from all over the nation, ranging in age from 30 to an over 80 year old Ben Franklin, attended the meetingThe meeting was a closed door meeting, or the information was kept from the publicEach state delegation would have one vote and a majority vote would be used to make decisions
23The Virginia PlanEdmund Randolph proposed that the delegates create a strong national government.He wanted a two house legislature, and states with more population would have more members in the legislatureDelegates from Delaware, New Jersey, and other small states did not agree
24The New Jersey PlanWilliam Paterson of New Jersey presented a plan that gave congress more power to tax and regulate tradeThis plan however gave every state equal representation
25Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut had a great idea He suggested two houses. In the lower house: The House of Representatives, the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state’s populationThe Upper House: The Senate, each state would have two members
26The 3/5 compromiseOnce the representation was settled, the colonies had to deal with the issue of slaveryNeither side wanted to give African Americans the right to voteThe colonies decided to count each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for both taxation and representation.
27Other CompromisesThe northern states let the southern states continue slavery, and pledged not to interfere for 20 yearsThe draft of the constitution did not include a bill of rightsWhen 9 of 13 states approved, the new government would be created, instead of a unanimous agreement needed for previous
28A New Plan of Government Section 3A New Plan of Government
29Roots of the Constitution England did have many items that the creators of the constitution admired:Parliament as a way to limit the power of the kingParliament also paid for wars and financed the governmentEngland also had the bill of rights of 1689
30Principles of LockeJohn Lock was a philosopher who believed all people had the right to life, liberty, and propertyHe also stated that government should be a contract between the people and the rulerThe contract would protect peoples rights
31Baron de MontesquieuHe was a French writer that stated powers of government should be separated and balanced against each otherThis separation would prevent any one person or group from gaining too much power
32Sharing PowerFederalism is sharing power between the federal and state governments.Under the constitution, government gained the powers to tax, regulate trade, control the currency, raise an army, and declare war.However, states still had the power to pass and enforce laws within their borders. States also had the power to tax
33The Supreme Law of the Land No state could make laws or take actions that went against the constitution.The power of the government would be divided into three parts based on Montesquieu’s ideasThe Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches
34Legislative BranchCongress would be two parts, The house of representatives and the senatePowers of congress would include collecting taxes, coining money, regulating trade, and declaring warIt could make new, necessary laws within the constitution
35Executive BranchMemories of King George made the colonies reluctant for this branchEventually, they agreed on the executive branch, headed by the presidentThe president and vice president would be elected by an electoral college, and each state was to have as many electors as representatives in congressEach president and vice president would serve a four year term
36Judicial Branch This is the court system of the country The nations power will be in one supreme court and any other lower federal courts that Congress might establishThe supreme court were to hear cases involving the Constitution, laws passed by congress, and disputes between states
37Checks and BalancesThe three branches have roles that check, or limit the others so that no single branch can dominate the government
38Checks and BalancesBoth the house and senate must pass a bill for it to become lawThe president can check congress by vetoing or rejecting the bill.To override a veto, two-thirds of congress must vote for the bill
39The finished productWith the constitution, Americans had shown the world that it was possible for a people to change its form of government through discussion and choice, rather than warOther nations would watch America closely to see if this experiment would really work
40Ratifying the Constitution Section 4Ratifying the Constitution
41The First PartySupporters of the new constitution were called federalistsThey had the support of the most famous and respected men in America – George Washington, Ben Franklin, as well as three of the most respected thinkers, James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton
42The Second Party Anti-federalists opposed the constitution They were not as organized, but strongly believed that the constitution took away basic rights won from Britain, favor the wealthy over the poor, and ignore the will of the people
43Ratifying the Constitution Despite anti-federalist complaints, the vote went forward9 states had to ratify the constitutionOn December 7th 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the constitutionOn June 21st 1788, New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify the constitution
44ConcernsNew York and Virginia were the two largest states, but they had not ratified the constitution yetVirginia eventually ratified it when they were promised a bill of rights would be added onNew York gave in when New York City threatened to join the Union on their own and leave the stateThe bill of rights would be added in 1791