Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 A More Perfect Union. Section 1 The Articles of Confederation."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 A More Perfect Union
Section 1 The Articles of Confederation
State Constitutions A constitution is a plan of government At the beginning of the war, each state was asked to create their own constitutions by the continental congress States wanted to limit the power of the executive (leader) People were elected to office (voted in)
Popular Politics State constitutions restricted the power of governors – Person in charge of a state This made legislatures in charge. They are the people that make laws (smaller congresses) Once the state governments were set up, the citizens believed America should be a republic – or a government which citizens rule through elected representatives.
Power for the States…Initially The people originally wanted states to act like small countries, united by a weaker central government The second continental congress developed the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation Under this, the states had most of the power, but the government had the authority to conduct foreign affairs, maintain armed forces, borrow money, and issue currency The government would not be able to regulate trade, force soldiers to join the army, or impose taxes. The government would have to ask permission to the states for any of the above, and had no chief executive.
Approving the Articles Under the plan, each state had one vote in the Confederation Congress Large states with more people thought they should have more votes States also argued about rights for the western land Eventually all states agreed on the articles
Problems with the Articles Congress could not pass a law unless 9 states voted in favor of it. There was no provision for allowing new states from the Western Territory Eventually they decided to allow states when a territories population reached that of the smallest existing state.
Ordinance of 1785 In 1785, an ordinance or law was passed which divided the land up into townships 6 miles long and wide, then divided into 36 sections of 640 acres each. In 1787 The Northwest Ordinance divided the northwest land into 5 lands. When the population of each land reached 60,000 people, each territory could apply for statehood.
Northwest Ordinance The dividing of land would eventually create Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio The ordinance included a bill of rights for settlers, guaranteeing freedom of religion and trial by jury. The government banned slavery as well
Financial Problems By 1781, the money printed during the Revolution had depreciated or lost value to the point where it was completely worthless The confederation could not pay back the war debts. It requested money from states, but they only provided roughly 1/6 of the money needed
Solution Shot Down A merchant named Robert Morris suggested collecting a 5% tax on imported goods to help pay the national debt. It required all states approving it, but Rhode Island shot it down The financial crisis got worse
Problems with Britain Britain kept their troops in certain forts in the great lakes area However, Britain claimed America was in violation of the Treaty of Paris for not paying loyalists for property taken from them during the revolution. The congress recommended to pay the loyalists, but the states refused.
Problems of Spain Spain was even more upset at Americans going west into their territory They closed the lower Mississippi River to American Shipping in 1784 The government compromised to limit American shipping in return for Spain accepting the border between Georgia and Florida. The Southern States rejected the agreement, because they wanted full use of the Mississippi
The Weak Articles of Confederation The Government that the Articles of Confederation had created was very weak George Washington described the government as, “Little more than the shadow without the substance” Many Americans now called for a stronger national government
Section 2 Convention and Compromise
Depression America went through a depression after the war, or a period when economic activity slows and unemployment increases. Southern Plantations were damaged during the war Rice exports dropped Sharply Farmers could not sell their goods, and many were arrested for not paying their debt
Trouble in Massachusetts Farmers saw the government as another form of tyranny Daniel Shays and other angry farmers took the law into their own hands and forced courts to close so no one could take their land He then led his army to a federal arsenal of weapons
Shays Rebellion The guards fired over the heads of the mob, over and over but the mob didn’t stop Eventually they fired and killed 4 farmers Shays Rebellion was over, but Americans were now worried their government could not protect them from violence.
Slavery Between 1784 and 1804, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey outlawed slavery This divided the country because slavery was still a large part of the Southern economy
Call for Reform Now there was a demand for a change to the Articles of Confederation James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, came to Philadelphia for change George Washington, originally against changing the Articles, changed his mind after Shays Rebellion
The Constitutional Convention Representatives from all over the nation, ranging in age from 30 to an over 80 year old Ben Franklin, attended the meeting The meeting was a closed door meeting, or the information was kept from the public Each state delegation would have one vote and a majority vote would be used to make decisions
The Virginia Plan Edmund Randolph proposed that the delegates create a strong national government. He wanted a two house legislature, and states with more population would have more members in the legislature Delegates from Delaware, New Jersey, and other small states did not agree
The New Jersey Plan William Paterson of New Jersey presented a plan that gave congress more power to tax and regulate trade This plan however gave every state equal representation
Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut had a great idea He suggested two houses. In the lower house: The House of Representatives, the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state’s population The Upper House: The Senate, each state would have two members
The 3/5 compromise Once the representation was settled, the colonies had to deal with the issue of slavery Neither side wanted to give African Americans the right to vote The colonies decided to count each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for both taxation and representation.
Other Compromises The northern states let the southern states continue slavery, and pledged not to interfere for 20 years The draft of the constitution did not include a bill of rights When 9 of 13 states approved, the new government would be created, instead of a unanimous agreement needed for previous
Section 3 A New Plan of Government
Roots of the Constitution England did have many items that the creators of the constitution admired: Parliament as a way to limit the power of the king Parliament also paid for wars and financed the government England also had the bill of rights of 1689
Principles of Locke John Lock was a philosopher who believed all people had the right to life, liberty, and property He also stated that government should be a contract between the people and the ruler The contract would protect peoples rights
Baron de Montesquieu He was a French writer that stated powers of government should be separated and balanced against each other This separation would prevent any one person or group from gaining too much power
Sharing Power Federalism is sharing power between the federal and state governments. Under the constitution, government gained the powers to tax, regulate trade, control the currency, raise an army, and declare war. However, states still had the power to pass and enforce laws within their borders. States also had the power to tax
The Supreme Law of the Land No state could make laws or take actions that went against the constitution. The power of the government would be divided into three parts based on Montesquieu’s ideas The Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches
Legislative Branch Congress would be two parts, The house of representatives and the senate Powers of congress would include collecting taxes, coining money, regulating trade, and declaring war It could make new, necessary laws within the constitution
Executive Branch Memories of King George made the colonies reluctant for this branch Eventually, they agreed on the executive branch, headed by the president The president and vice president would be elected by an electoral college, and each state was to have as many electors as representatives in congress Each president and vice president would serve a four year term
Judicial Branch This is the court system of the country The nations power will be in one supreme court and any other lower federal courts that Congress might establish The supreme court were to hear cases involving the Constitution, laws passed by congress, and disputes between states
Checks and Balances The three branches have roles that check, or limit the others so that no single branch can dominate the government
Checks and Balances Both the house and senate must pass a bill for it to become law The president can check congress by vetoing or rejecting the bill. To override a veto, two-thirds of congress must vote for the bill
The finished product With the constitution, Americans had shown the world that it was possible for a people to change its form of government through discussion and choice, rather than war Other nations would watch America closely to see if this experiment would really work
Section 4 Ratifying the Constitution
The First Party Supporters of the new constitution were called federalists They had the support of the most famous and respected men in America – George Washington, Ben Franklin, as well as three of the most respected thinkers, James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton
The Second Party Anti-federalists opposed the constitution They were not as organized, but strongly believed that the constitution took away basic rights won from Britain, favor the wealthy over the poor, and ignore the will of the people
Ratifying the Constitution Despite anti-federalist complaints, the vote went forward 9 states had to ratify the constitution On December 7 th 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the constitution On June 21 st 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 th state to ratify the constitution
Concerns New York and Virginia were the two largest states, but they had not ratified the constitution yet Virginia eventually ratified it when they were promised a bill of rights would be added on New York gave in when New York City threatened to join the Union on their own and leave the state The bill of rights would be added in 1791