Presentation on theme: "SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company,"— Presentation transcript:
SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
Thirteen British Colonies
The Virginia Company The King of England granted a charter to the Virginia Company which established Jamestown as their settlement in 1607.
Tobacco At first the Virginia Company failed to produce a cash crop and the Jamestown colony nearly failed. John Rolfe established a blend of tobacco that was sold in England and produced a cash crop that made the colony prosper (1614).
The House of Burgesses The Virginia Company established a representative body to help run the colony in The House of Burgesses was made up of a governor and 20 representatives, or burgesses, from the colony’s 10 towns.
Relations with the Natives The local natives, the Powhatan, had an uneasy peace with the Virginia Company settlers and traded them food, helping the colony to survive for the first few years. Relations eventually deteriorated and in 1622 the Powhatan attack Jamestown, killing many settlers. The uprising is put down, but causes the King to revoke the Virginia Company’s Charter, turning Virginia into a Royal colony led by a governor appointed by the King.
Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon: -a frontier farmer who was upset with the way the Governor was ruling the Virginia colony. -Governor took away many voting rights and failed to protect frontier farmers, who wanted more western land, from Native attacks.
Bacon’s Rebellion Bacon raised a militia and took over Jamestown in 1676 The Governor retook the colony later that year after Bacon became ill and died
Slavery comes to Virginia The first Africans came to Virginia in 1619 and were not used as slaves but as baptized servants. By the 1680s slaves began to replace indentured servants as workers in Virginia.
Questions 1.What role did the Virginia Company and tobacco have in saving the Virginia colony? 2.What type of government did the House of Burgesses form? 3.What was the relationship between the Powhatan and the colonists? How did it change and why? 4.Why did Nathaniel Bacon lead a revolt in Virginia? 5.What did role did the first Africans play in the development of Virginia?
SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17 th century b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter.
New England settlement The Pilgrims, which were a separatist group that broke away from the Church of England, established the Plymouth Colony in The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by John Winthrop in 1630 as a refuge for Puritans who were being persecuted in England.
Massachusetts Bay Colony Laws were passed requiring everyone to attend the Puritan church. The government collected taxes used to support the established Puritan church. The Puritan Church was intolerant of other religions. Settlers could be charged with heresy and banished from the colony if they spoke out against the church.
Rhode Island In 1635 a preacher named Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for speaking out against the Puritan way. Williams founded Providence: he separated the church and state and allowed differing religious beliefs.
Half-Way Covenant Created in 1662, it provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of Puritan church members as a means of keeping the church's influence in society.
King Phillip’s War By the 1670s colonial governments began demanding that natives follow English laws and customs. King Phillip (a Native leader), led an uprising against the colonists. King Phillip was killed in 1676 and the war ended in 1678 ending any further Native resistance in New England.
Salem Witch Trials. 20 residents of Salem executed for being witches. Accused by a group of teenage girls. The group admitted later that they had made up the accusations. Reasons for the accusations may have been from cultural/economic differences. wDdtOwYi8vY wDdtOwYi8vY
New England Government Town Meetings: town residents met to discuss local issues and to pass laws for the local community. Town meetings gave the locals a chance at self government (Why would this lead to the American Revolution?).
Massachusetts loses it’s Charter The Glorious Revolution in England led to the removal of King James II. William and Mary issue a new, Royal Charter in The new charter held that: The people could elect an assembly, however King William held the power to appoint the Governor. Voters had to own property, but no longer had to be members of the Puritan Church. (How did this spell the end of Puritan Power in New England?)
Questions 1.Why did the Puritans colonize Massachusetts and how did their religion influence their government? 2.Why was Rhode Island founded? 3.How was the half-way covenant a response to the founding of R.I.? 4.What were the causes and results of King Phillip’s War? 5.What type of local government did the Massachusetts colonists develop? 6.How did Massachusetts lose it’s charter?
SSUSH1 - The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania d. Explain the reason for the French settlement of Quebec
New Amsterdam Henry Hudson first discovered the area for the Dutch. By 1614, the Dutch establish fur-trading posts and name the area “New Netherland”.
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam, located on Manhattan Island, was the main Dutch settlement. To increase the population, the Dutch allowed anyone to buy land in the new colony, making the colony very diverse. King Charles II of England felt the Dutch were growing too strong, and seized the colony in 1664 for England. England divides the area into two new colonies, New York, and New Jersey.
Pennsylvania In 1680 William Penn, a Quaker, inherited an area south of New York as a debt from King Charles II.
Quakers Quakers believed that there was no need for churches or ministers (How did this differ from the Puritan beliefs?) They also advocated pacifism, and objected to political and religious authority
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania was Penn’s “holy experiment” -complete political and religious freedom -friendly relationship with the natives lasted over 70 years -made land available to all settlers
The French in Quebec The French find “New France” and use it as a base for fur trading. Fur became fashionable in Europe, increasing the demand. Quebec becomes the capital of New France.
Jamestown Jamestown was founded on a small island, which was located several miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean on the James River.
Jamestown The island offered protection from attacks by the local natives and Spanish ships. The location also made it ideal to ship goods (tobacco) back to England, and access to a food source (fish).
New York City New York was founded by the Dutch on the tip of Manhattan Island just inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It was established as a fur trading post. NYC Circa 1609 (National Geographic)
New York City New York is also located on a large, natural harbor, making it suitable for shipping and trade.
Questions 1.Why did the French settle in Quebec? 2.What geographic features each made Jamestown and New York City ideal for settlement? 3.Why did the English take of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam? 4.How was the settlement of Pennsylvania different from the settlement in Massachusetts?
Benjamin Franklin The Great Awakening c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening
Benjamin Franklin Born in Boston as one of 17 children. Worked for his brother in Boston as a printer’s apprentice. In 1723,at the age of 16, he ran away to Philadelphia, with a little more than a dollar in his pocket. Became an inventor, a supporter of the American Revolution, a statesman, and a major figure in the Enlightenment.
The Great Awakening Stressed a dependence on God and was widely accepted by farmers and slaves -Preachers used revivals as a means of spreading their message -Jonathan Edwards: Preached in New England stressing the need for repenting in order to be born again
The Great Awakening George Whitefield: Based in Philadelphia, believed that all ministers must be reborn. In the South, the Baptist movement reached out to freemen and slaves. The Great Awakening was one of the last major cultural developments prior to the American Revolution. HBNWQ HBNWQ
SSUSH2: The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed a.Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade. b.Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African Population, and African-American culture
Mercantilism Believed that for a country to become rich and powerful it had to accumulate gold and silver -Had to sell more goods than what it bought -Should be self-sufficient in raw materials -Needed to establish colonies to get the raw materials from -Would then turn around and sell finished goods back to their colonies
Middle Passage The portion of the triangular trade which brought enslaved Africans to the Caribbean and American colonies
Atlantic Slave Trade
Early Slavery in the Colonies The first Africans brought to Virginia and Maryland were treated more like indentured servants, and could win their freedom by converting to Christianity. Slave codes: In 1705 Virginia formed a set of laws which defined and regulated slavery. Slavery became a recognized institution by the early 1700s.
African-American culture in the colonies Africans in the colonies came from differing regions in West Africa and spoke many different languages. In South Carolina, a common language combining English and African words called Gullah was formed by slaves as a means of communicating.
African-American culture in the colonies African and Christian beliefs, and musical forms, were also culturally mixed.
Review: Colonial Culture 1. The colonial business in which Europeans transported African slaves to America and sold them to white slave owners was called what? A. mercantilismC. individualism B. triangular trade route D. the Atlantic slave trade 2. Which of the following is true regarding African Americans in the American colonies? A. Most of them were slaves who gained freedom after 7 yrs. of service. B. They came to America from a variety of different backgrounds. C. They were all slaves because the law prevented blacks from ever being free. D. Most enjoyed a great amount of social mobility in the colonies.
Unit 2 Terms to Know Powhatan Bacon’s Rebellion Massachusetts settlement Half-Way Covenant King Phillip’s War Massachusetts charter Salem Witch Trials Mid-Atlantic Colonies Pennsylvania New Amsterdam (New York) Quebec Mercantilism Transatlantic trade Middle Passage Benjamin Franklin Individualism Social Mobility The Great Awakening