Presentation on theme: "Step 6 From Outline To Drafting Your Argumentative Essay"— Presentation transcript:
1Step 6 From Outline To Drafting Your Argumentative Essay
2THE BODY PARAGRAPHS & THE ESSAY LETS BEGIN DRAFTINGTHE BODY PARAGRAPHS & THE ESSAY
3Drafting your essay Topic Thesis Statement Outline Drafting your essay The complete research paper
4What are the building blocks of the essay (10% of your coursework) What are the building blocks of the essay (10% of your coursework)? Paragraphs!There are a number of ways oforganizing the paragraphs of anargumentative essay or paper. Thefollowing is just one of the many….
5The paragraphs: Introduction Counterargument and Rebuttal Argument 1 Conclusion
6or: Introduction Argument 1 Argument 2 Counterargument and Rebuttal Conclusion
7A good paragraph should be like … It has a topic sentence just like the top bun.The supporting details are like the lettuce, meat, cheese in the middle that make everything looks good.There is a concluding sentence like the bun at the bottom that ‘holds’ everything together
8Paragraph 1: The Introduction 1.Introduces the topic2.States why the topic is important3.States that there is a difference of opinion about this topic4.Clearly states the writer's position and how this will be supported
9Paragraph 1: The Introduction Women should get involved in politicsAlmost since time began, the issue of whether women should be involved at some level of political life has been a source of discussion. Indeed, women constitute half of humanity and it follows that they should be able to take part in any decision making that takes place at the individual, family, societal or national level. Some argue that women should stay at home rather than getting involved in outside issues which are better handled by men. Others hold the view that they should take an equal share in political life. The debate continues unabated into the 21st century and it is this issue which is intended to be discussed in this paper. Although some may strongly disagree, it is firmly believed that women should be involved in political life for the sake of women’s development, the good of society as well as to benefit women’s diverse abilities.
10Paragraph 2: Argument 1 Women should be involved in political life for the sake of women’s development.Introduce writer’s first argumentsProvide support for this argumentConclude
11Paragraph 2: Argument 1First of all, as women constitute a little over half of the population of the world, they surely have the right to be represented by women. In modern society we frequently hear the expression human rights and more recently this has been extended to women’s rights, not by men but by women’s pressure groups, run by women, for women. Such women’s groups have done a great deal to help the position of women not only in the West but also in third world countries where many women are in a disadvantaged state. Schemes for better healthcare, family planning, educational opportunities and equality at the workplace are just a few examples of how women politicians have worked to improve the position of women in society. The reality is that women politicians are always better placed to understand women’s problems and do something to put them right. It is clear that women do have an important role to play in political life in terms of representing other women in society.
12Paragraph 3: Argument 2 Women should be involved in political life for the good of society. Introduce writer’s subsequent argumentProvide support for this argumentConclude
13Paragraph 4: Counterargument & Rebuttal (Argument 3) Discusses the opposing views (CA)Looks at support for their argumentsStates the writer’s opposition to this view (Rebuttal)Women should be involved in political life in order to allow everybody to benefit from women’s diverse abilities.Gives reasons why this position is untenable
14Paragraph 4: Counterargument & Rebuttal (Argument 3) There are those who argue very strongly that women should fulfil their primary responsibility inside the house and not worry about with outside issues that are not their main concern in life.They contend that a woman should take care of her husband and children and make sure there is food on the table and that the members of her family are well looked after.They are of the view that outside matters are better handled by the male members of their family as men are better equipped physically and emotionally to handle these matters. Whilst this position has its supporters, their arguments are untenable because women should be involved in political life in order for everybody to benefit from their diverse abilities. Firstly, a woman is quite capable of looking after her husband and children and taking an interest in what is happening outside the house too. There are many examples of successful women who have had large and happy families. Secondly, to say that males are actually better physically equipped to handle outside matters is reducing our modern day society to that of the cavemen when undoubtedly the physical strength of the man was of great importance. Furthermore, we have yet to see any convincing evidence to support the view that women are in any way emotionally unsuited to politics. Tell that to the Thatchers and Ghandis of this world!
15Paragraph 5: Conclusion and Recommendations Restate stancePresent one or two general sentences which accurately summarize your arguments which support the main conclusionProvide a general statement of how the community will benefit from following that conclusion.
16After you have written… Once you have completed your essay, check it for the following things:Does it provide strong support for your main conclusion?Can you make the text more cohesive?Are your verbs correct?Is every sentence a complete sentence - does it have a subject and a verb?Is your spelling correct?Is your punctuation correct?
17Paragraph 5: Conclusion and Recommendations In conclusion, despite certain arguments against women taking part in politics, it is obvious to most fair minded people that women do have a right and, indeed, an obligation to get involved in political life. This is beneficial not only to defend women’s rights in society but also to improve society in general and make full use of women’s abilities. It is firmly believed that it is fair to say that female politicians bring a fresh perspective to a world that has too long been dominated by men. Women are very capable politicians as can be seen from the performance of a growing number of female leaders who have made a huge and lasting contribution to the internal affairs of their own countries and international affairs in general. It should be the duty of all women who have an aptitude for politics to take up the challenge and fulfil their destiny in life.
18QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE ESSAYS Interesting and thoughtful; a product of careful thinking and planning.Focused; expresses clear points in the thesis statement. Expresses clear main idea in topic sentence.The main points should clearly and directly connect to the thesis statement.Developed; to be well developed, the author offers significant amount of support.
19QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE ESSAYS cont… Organized; organized in logical pattern. E.g: least important point first, most important last. Most obvious first, least obvious points last. Make sure that ideas FLOW; use transition words.Clearly written; the writer needs to read his work aloud and carefully proofread to avoid typing, spelling and grammar problems.Use a transition word in the topic sentence that helps the reader see how paragraphs CONNECT to one another and to the thesis.
20Writing Effectively: Using transitions or signal words. Transitional phrases: Why They Matter!The use of transitional phrases is an integral ingredient in your argumentative essay. Using transitional phrases improves the coherence of your paragraphs and makes the arguments stand out. In addition, they draw attention to the writer's movement back and forth from one subject to the other, emphasizing either support or opposition. Hence, transitions help the reader to grasp your logic and follow your argument easily.
21SIGNAL WORDS: To show EMPHASIS It is important to note thatMost of allA significant factorA primary concernThe most substantial issueA key factorThe main reasonMore noteworthyPay particular attention toA vital reasonIt should be noted that
22SIGNAL WORDS: To show ILLUSTRATION For exampleTo illustrateSpecificallyFor instanceSuch as
23SIGNAL WORDS: To show CAUSE AND EFFECT BecauseThereforeSoCauseEffectThusconsequentlySinceAs a resultResult in
24SIGNAL WORDS: To show ADDITION OF INFORMATION FurthermoreIn additionLast of allLikewiseMoreoverNextAndAlsoAnotherFinallyFirstFirst of allFor one thing
25SIGNAL WORDS: To show SIMILAR IDEAS LikewiseJust likeJust asIn like mannerIn a similar fashionIn the same waySimilarlyas
26SIGNAL WORDS: To show CONTRASTING IDEAS ButHoweverIn contrastYetDifferdifferenceOn the contraryOn the other handConverselyOtherwiseNevertheless
27An example Topic: Euthanasia -The right to die To introduce 1st point: The first reason to support euthanasia is that the patients have no chance of recovery.To introduce 2nd point: Another reason to support mercy killing is that medical cost is very high.To introduce 3rd point: The final and most important reason to support the legalization of euthanasia is to lighten the family’s sufferings.To introduce counterargument: Those oppose to the idea of euthanasia claim that the legalization of euthanasia will violate the rights of the patients.To introduce refutation: Yet, it is important to note that the legalization of euthanasia will not violate the rights of the patients.
28Another example Title: The spirit of holidays is being destroyed by commercialism. To introduce 1st argument: An evidence that points commercialism is ruining holidays is the emphasis on shopping for bargains rather than activities related to cultural history.To introduce 2nd argument: Another evidence to prove the spirit of holidays is being destroyed by commercialism is the little emphasis given on understanding the significance of the religious festival itself.To introduce 3rd point: The most visible evidence that commercialism now dominates holidays is the unfortunate emphasis on spending money in preparation for religious activities.To introduce counterargument: In spite of all the evidence given, it is undeniable that not all people are troubled by the spirit of commercialism on holidays.To introduce refutation: Nevertheless, what many people do not realize is the fact that there are more people who are affected by this phenomenon than those who are not.
29Another exampleOne of the most persistent desires of human beings has been to indulge in mood-changing and pleasure-giving practices._______ , diverse cultures have engaged in the drinking of alcoholic beverages of all descriptions. ______ as with most pleasures, overindulgence can be harmful to oneself and others. ______, not everyone agrees that drinking or using other mood modifiers should be an accepted pleasure.
30and another exampleSignals of emphasis, contrast, and cause and effect._________value of play technique is in the study of personality. Children often cannot or will not explain themselves in the first person. _______, they may reveal much of their inner lives in play. The child who will not tell about his or her own fears and conflicts may readily project these feelings onto dolls. Feelings of rejection, insecurity, mixed attitudes about parents, repressed hatred, fears, and aggressions may all be freely revealed in play. ______ , the play technique, when properly handled, offers opportunities for understanding the child that are otherwise difficult to create.
31Writing Effectively: using vocabulary for argumentative writing. Our essay will be extremely dull and unimpressive if we keep using the word ‘say’ to refer to people’s opinions all the way through. The following page contains lists of useful alternatives.
32Instead of ‘say’, you can use… argueclaimmaintainassertcontendallegeinsistsuggestpoint outbelieve
33Example of usagePeople who are not in favor of television ________ that it exposes us to too much violence and as a result, we become less sensitive to real-life violence. They also _______ that schoolchildren neglect homework and have problems concentrating in class as a result of spending too much time glued to the box. Finally, they also __________ that television has turned many of us into overweight, unfit “couch potatoes”.
34Cont…However, many people _______ that television is a blessing for lonely, elderly or house bound people. Furthermore, they _________ it does not simply entertain; it can be very educational as well. Another argument ________ that television sometimes plays an important role in fundraising for disaster relief and various charities.
361. SEXIST LANGUAGEX A doctor has little time to read outside his specialty.A doctor has little time to read outside his or her specialty.X A successful lawyer knows he has to work long hours.Successful lawyers know they have to work long hours.X Everyone hopes he will win the scholarship.Everyone hopes to win the scholarship.
372. SLANTED LANGUAGEX Drug dealers are deceitful and crooked thugs.Drug dealers are deceitful and they pose dangers to the public.X Having an abusive parent is like living with the pharaoh.Having an abusive parent is indeed difficult and frightening.
383. PRETENTIOUS LANGUAGEX He has a penchant for ostentatiously flaunting recently acquired haberdashery accoutrements.He tends to show off his new clothes shamelessly.?
394. COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGEX Due to the fact that students have to be active in extra-curricular activities, many of them flunked their exams.Due to the fact that students have to be active in extra-curricular activities, many of them failed their exams.
405. SARCASTIC LANGUAGEX He was an Albert Einstein whenever asked a question. (In actual fact, he did not know anything).He had trouble understanding questions asked to him.
416. JARGONS X Physicians and analgesia. Doctors and pain relievers (unless you are a science/medical student).
42Reminder: Essay for in-class test 5 to 7 paragraphsthe final exam too!outlines cannot be referred to1 hour450 words10% of total evaluation of LE 4000