Presentation on theme: "Step 6 From Outline To Drafting Your Argumentative Essay."— Presentation transcript:
Step 6 From Outline To Drafting Your Argumentative Essay
LETS BEGIN DRAFTING THE BODY PARAGRAPHS & THE ESSAY
Drafting your essay Topic Thesis Statement Outline The complete research paper Drafting your essay
What are the building blocks of the essay (10% of your coursework)? Paragraphs! There are a number of ways of organizing the paragraphs of an argumentative essay or paper. The following is just one of the many….
The paragraphs: Introduction Counterargument and Rebuttal Argument 1 Argument 2 Conclusion
A good paragraph should be like … It has a topic sentence just like the top bun. The supporting details are like the lettuce, meat, cheese in the middle that make everything looks good. There is a concluding sentence like the bun at the bottom that ‘holds’ everything together
Paragraph 1: The Introduction 1.Introduces the topic 2.States why the topic is important 3.States that there is a difference of opinion about this topic 4.Clearly states the writer's position and how this will be supported
Paragraph 1: The Introduction Women should get involved in politics Almost since time began, the issue of whether women should be involved at some level of political life has been a source of discussion. Indeed, women constitute half of humanity and it follows that they should be able to take part in any decision making that takes place at the individual, family, societal or national level. Some argue that women should stay at home rather than getting involved in outside issues which are better handled by men. Others hold the view that they should take an equal share in political life. The debate continues unabated into the 21 st century and it is this issue which is intended to be discussed in this paper. Although some may strongly disagree, it is firmly believed that women should be involved in political life for the sake of women’s development, the good of society as well as to benefit women’s diverse abilities.
Paragraph 2: Argument 1 Women should be involved in political life for the sake of women’s development. Introduce writer’s first arguments Provide support for this argument Conclude
Paragraph 2: Argument 1 First of all, as women constitute a little over half of the population of the world, they surely have the right to be represented by women. In modern society we frequently hear the expression human rights and more recently this has been extended to women’s rights, not by men but by women’s pressure groups, run by women, for women. Such women’s groups have done a great deal to help the position of women not only in the West but also in third world countries where many women are in a disadvantaged state. Schemes for better healthcare, family planning, educational opportunities and equality at the workplace are just a few examples of how women politicians have worked to improve the position of women in society. The reality is that women politicians are always better placed to understand women’s problems and do something to put them right. It is clear that women do have an important role to play in political life in terms of representing other women in society.
Paragraph 3: Argument 2 W omen should be involved in political life for the good of society. Introduce writer’s subsequent argument Provide support for this argument Conclude
Paragraph 4: Counterargument & Rebuttal (Argument 3) Discusses the opposing views (CA) Looks at support for their arguments States the writer’s opposition to this view (Rebuttal) Women should be involved in political life in order to allow everybody to benefit from women’s diverse abilities. Gives reasons why this position is untenable
There are those who argue very strongly that women should fulfil their primary responsibility inside the house and not worry about with outside issues that are not their main concern in life.They contend that a woman should take care of her husband and children and make sure there is food on the table and that the members of her family are well looked after.They are of the view that outside matters are better handled by the male members of their family as men are better equipped physically and emotionally to handle these matters. Whilst this position has its supporters, their arguments are untenable because women should be involved in political life in order for everybody to benefit from their diverse abilities. Firstly, a woman is quite capable of looking after her husband and children and taking an interest in what is happening outside the house too. There are many examples of successful women who have had large and happy families. Secondly, to say that males are actually better physically equipped to handle outside matters is reducing our modern day society to that of the cavemen when undoubtedly the physical strength of the man was of great importance. Furthermore, we have yet to see any convincing evidence to support the view that women are in any way emotionally unsuited to politics. Tell that to the Thatchers and Ghandis of this world! Paragraph 4: Counterargument & Rebuttal (Argument 3)
Paragraph 5: Conclusion and Recommendations Restate stance Present one or two general sentences which accurately summarize your arguments which support the main conclusion Provide a general statement of how the community will benefit from following that conclusion.
After you have written… Once you have completed your essay, check it for the following things: Does it provide strong support for your main conclusion? Can you make the text more cohesive? Are your verbs correct? Is every sentence a complete sentence - does it have a subject and a verb? Is your spelling correct? Is your punctuation correct?
Paragraph 5: Conclusion and Recommendations In conclusion, despite certain arguments against women taking part in politics, it is obvious to most fair minded people that women do have a right and, indeed, an obligation to get involved in political life. This is beneficial not only to defend women’s rights in society but also to improve society in general and make full use of women’s abilities. It is firmly believed that it is fair to say that female politicians bring a fresh perspective to a world that has too long been dominated by men. Women are very capable politicians as can be seen from the performance of a growing number of female leaders who have made a huge and lasting contribution to the internal affairs of their own countries and international affairs in general. It should be the duty of all women who have an aptitude for politics to take up the challenge and fulfil their destiny in life.
QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE ESSAYS Interesting and thoughtful; a product of careful thinking and planning. Focused; expresses clear points in the thesis statement. Expresses clear main idea in topic sentence. The main points should clearly and directly connect to the thesis statement. Developed; to be well developed, the author offers significant amount of support.
QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE ESSAYS cont… Organized; organized in logical pattern. E.g: least important point first, most important last. Most obvious first, least obvious points last. Make sure that ideas FLOW; use transition words. Clearly written; the writer needs to read his work aloud and carefully proofread to avoid typing, spelling and grammar problems. Use a transition word in the topic sentence that helps the reader see how paragraphs CONNECT to one another and to the thesis.
Writing Effectively: Using transitions or signal words. Transitional phrases: Why They Matter! The use of transitional phrases is an integral ingredient in your argumentative essay. Using transitional phrases improves the coherence of your paragraphs and makes the arguments stand out. In addition, they draw attention to the writer's movement back and forth from one subject to the other, emphasizing either support or opposition. Hence, transitions help the reader to grasp your logic and follow your argument easily.
SIGNAL WORDS: To show EMPHASIS It is important to note that Most of all A significant factor A primary concern The most substantial issue A key factor The main reason More noteworthy Pay particular attention to A vital reason It should be noted that
SIGNAL WORDS: To show ILLUSTRATION For example To illustrate Specifically For instance Such as
SIGNAL WORDS: To show CAUSE AND EFFECT Because Therefore So Cause Effect Thus consequently Since As a result Result in
SIGNAL WORDS: To show ADDITION OF INFORMATION Also Another Finally First First of all For one thing Furthermore In addition Last of all Likewise Moreover Next And
SIGNAL WORDS: To show SIMILAR IDEAS Likewise Just like Just as In like manner In a similar fashion In the same way Similarly as
SIGNAL WORDS: To show CONTRASTING IDEAS But However In contrast Yet Differ difference On the contrary On the other hand Conversely Otherwise Nevertheless
An example Topic: Euthanasia -The right to die To introduce 1 st point: The first reason to support euthanasia is that the patients have no chance of recovery. To introduce 2 nd point: Another reason to support mercy killing is that medical cost is very high. To introduce 3 rd point: The final and most important reason to support the legalization of euthanasia is to lighten the family’s sufferings. To introduce counterargument: Those oppose to the idea of euthanasia claim that the legalization of euthanasia will violate the rights of the patients. To introduce refutation: Yet, it is important to note that the legalization of euthanasia will not violate the rights of the patients.
Another example Title: The spirit of holidays is being destroyed by commercialism. To introduce 1 st argument: An evidence that points commercialism is ruining holidays is the emphasis on shopping for bargains rather than activities related to cultural history. To introduce 2 nd argument: Another evidence to prove the spirit of holidays is being destroyed by commercialism is the little emphasis given on understanding the significance of the religious festival itself. To introduce 3 rd point: The most visible evidence that commercialism now dominates holidays is the unfortunate emphasis on spending money in preparation for religious activities. To introduce counterargument: In spite of all the evidence given, it is undeniable that not all people are troubled by the spirit of commercialism on holidays. To introduce refutation: Nevertheless, what many people do not realize is the fact that there are more people who are affected by this phenomenon than those who are not.
Another example One of the most persistent desires of human beings has been to indulge in mood-changing and pleasure-giving practices._______, diverse cultures have engaged in the drinking of alcoholic beverages of all descriptions. ______ as with most pleasures, overindulgence can be harmful to oneself and others. ______, not everyone agrees that drinking or using other mood modifiers should be an accepted pleasure.
and another example Signals of emphasis, contrast, and cause and effect. _________value of play technique is in the study of personality. Children often cannot or will not explain themselves in the first person. _______, they may reveal much of their inner lives in play. The child who will not tell about his or her own fears and conflicts may readily project these feelings onto dolls. Feelings of rejection, insecurity, mixed attitudes about parents, repressed hatred, fears, and aggressions may all be freely revealed in play. ______, the play technique, when properly handled, offers opportunities for understanding the child that are otherwise difficult to create.
Writing Effectively: using vocabulary for argumentative writing. Our essay will be extremely dull and unimpressive if we keep using the word ‘say’ to refer to people’s opinions all the way through. The following page contains lists of useful alternatives.
Instead of ‘say’, you can use… argue claim maintain assert contend allege insist suggest point out believe
Example of usage People who are not in favor of television ________ that it exposes us to too much violence and as a result, we become less sensitive to real-life violence. They also _______ that schoolchildren neglect homework and have problems concentrating in class as a result of spending too much time glued to the box. Finally, they also __________ that television has turned many of us into overweight, unfit “couch potatoes”.
Cont… However, many people _______ that television is a blessing for lonely, elderly or house bound people. Furthermore, they _________ it does not simply entertain; it can be very educational as well. Another argument ________ that television sometimes plays an important role in fundraising for disaster relief and various charities.
LANGUAGE TO BE AVOIDED LANGUAGE TO BE AVOIDED 1.SEXIST LANGUAGE 2. SLANTED LANGUAGE 3. PRETENTIOUS LANGUAGE 4. COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE 5. SARCASTIC LANGUAGE 6. JARGONS whenever possible
1. SEXIST LANGUAGE X A doctor has little time to read outside his specialty. A doctor has little time to read outside his or her specialty. X A successful lawyer knows he has to work long hours. Successful lawyers know they have to work long hours. X Everyone hopes he will win the scholarship. Everyone hopes to win the scholarship.
2. SLANTED LANGUAGE X Drug dealers are deceitful and crooked thugs. Drug dealers are deceitful and they pose dangers to the public. X Having an abusive parent is like living with the pharaoh. Having an abusive parent is indeed difficult and frightening.
3. PRETENTIOUS LANGUAGE X He has a penchant for ostentatiously flaunting recently acquired haberdashery accoutrements. He tends to show off his new clothes shamelessly. ?
4. COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE X Due to the fact that students have to be active in extra- curricular activities, many of them flunked their exams. Due to the fact that students have to be active in extra- curricular activities, many of them failed their exams.
5. SARCASTIC LANGUAGE X He was an Albert Einstein whenever asked a question. (In actual fact, he did not know anything). He had trouble understanding questions asked to him.
6. JARGONS X Physicians and analgesia. Doctors and pain relievers (unless you are a science/medical student).
Reminder: Essay for in-class test 5 to 7 paragraphs the final exam too! outlines cannot be referred to 1 hour 450 words 10% of total evaluation of LE 4000