3Content/Organization Focus on purpose and audienceState your position clearly and simplyUse specific details and evidence for supportPlace ideas in order of importanceStructure your argument from weakest to strongest points – leave them with the strongest argumentEnd with a call to action
4Sentence Construction Vary sentence structureEdit for fragmentsEdit for run-on sentences
5UsageChoose words whose meaning you are sure of and use them properly.Verify the context for your 50¢ words.
10How to read a persuasive writing task 1. Underline the parts of the writing situation that are most important.2. Use this information as a framework to your response.3. It is easiest to persuade the reader if you believe in what you are writing. Think about an issue before you begin formal planning of your response.
11How to respond to a persuasive writing task FREE-WRITEMAKE A LISTUSE THE QUESTION METHOD
12FREE-WRITE 1. Free-write for 1 or 2 minutes. Freewriting is thinking on paper without formal sentence structure or grammar.2. Reread what you have written and underline anything that is interesting to you as you read.3. Locate your position on the topic as revealed in your freewriting.4. Use this position to frame your thesis.
13MAKE A LIST1. Make a fast list of thoughts you have concerning the topic.2. Review your list to locate your position on the topic.3. Use this position to frame your thesis.
14QUESTION METHOD Ask yourself the following questions: 1. What would be the benefits for the individual involved in this topic?2. What would be the hardships incurred by the individual if this topic was to happen?3. What benefits are given in the writing situation?4. What negatives are given in the writing situation?5. Do the benefits outweigh the negatives? Why?6. Use the answer to number 5 to determine your position and thesis.
15PREWRITING: TEN MINUTES THAT CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE! Persuasive WritingPREWRITING: TEN MINUTES THAT CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE!
16PrewritingYou do not have time to change your opinion once you have begun to write ~ therefore it is important that you know what you are going to say and the details that will be used in support of your ideas before beginning the actual process of writing.
18Informal Outline 1. Introduction ~ Thesis statement a. supporting idea 1b. supporting idea 2c. supporting idea 3
19Informal Outline (Con’t.) 2. Body paragraph 1 – supporting idea 1a. reasonsb. examplec. exampled. transition3. Body paragraph 2 – supporting idea 2a. reasonsb. examplec. reason or exampled. transition
20Informal Outline (Con’t.) 4. Body paragraph 3 – supporting idea 3a. reasonsb. examplec. reason or exampled. transition5. Conclusiona. quick summary of your reasoning processb. restatement of your thesis
26Writing the Thesis Statement The difference between a thesis statement in a persuasive writing from a thesis statement in a paper is its emphasis. When writing to persuade, it is imperative that you take a position for or against an idea. Do not “sit on a fence.” Take a position, and then defend it. The strongest support for a position is based upon the conviction of the writer.
27Writing the Thesis Statement (Con’t.) However, avoid statements that include words that are absolutes such as:all alwaysbest everynever noneworst
28Writing the Thesis Statement (Con’t.) These words limit your argument by not allowing for exceptions, therefore if the reader can locate a single argument against your reasoning, you can lose your case.Keep the thesis simple! Use the important information from the question to shape your thesis. Do not feel compelled to write a complex sentence unless you can do it perfectly. Use the line in the text as the basis for the thesis and add your opinion.
29Paragraph Organization Start with the strongest argument and work to the weaker oneORStart with the weaker argument and work to the stronger one
30Paragraph Organization (Con’t.) Coherence in every paragraphEvery sentence adds to the one beforeEvery sentence flows smoothly to the nextNew ideas go in new paragraphs
31Paragraph Organization (Con’t.) Topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraphArrange the rest of your sentences after it either by order of importance or logic.Most good arguments are based on researchReason (i.e. your opinion) supported by example can also persuade
32Paragraph Organization (Con’t.) Nouns and pronouns that refer to their antecedents can help smooth transitions between sentencesEx. 1Cats make wonderful pets. They are easy to care for and they are inexpensive to maintain. (Clear reference – they refers to cats)
33Paragraph Organization (Con’t.) Ex. 2 Be careful to use pronouns clearlyCats can be trained almost as easily as dogs. The tricks they do can impress many people. (Unclear who they is – dogs is the closest noun, the reader may become confused)
34Paragraph Organization ~ Another way to flow smoothly through your paragraph is to use “connectives” accordinglyagainfor examplealthoughbeyondconverselyfirstas a resultsecondlyfinallysimultaneouslyalsofor instancehencethenadditionallynextneverthelesson the contraryotherwiseconsequentlythusin additionsecondat the same time
35Paragraph Organization (Con’t.) Transitions smooth the flow between paragraphs“Connectives” can be usedA word or phrase from the preceding paragraph can be used in the topic sentence of the next paragraph
36Supporting Your Ideas~ The major ways to support an argument StatisticsFactsEvidenceExpert testimonyPredictionObservationComparisonExperienceAnalogiesAnalysis
37Writing the EssayOnce the essay is planned, the prewriting done, the majority of the thinking is finished.Opening paragraphInteresting sentence – rhetorical question or example or an appropriate quoteThesis sentenceEach of the main reasons noted in your prewritingThink of this paragraph as an outline of key points
38Writing the Essay (Con’t.) Body ParagraphsClear topic sentences that link to the thesis statementShould include benefits or disadvantages that relate to the topic sentenceGive at least one developed example of a benefit or disadvantageInclude facts, if you know them (not made up)
39Writing the Essay (Con’t.) ConclusionLast, but not leastWording and logic is importantNo contradictionsNo new ideas – this is not the time to come up with an argument that has not already been discussedRestate the original thesis
40Revise and Edit Look for obvious errors in grammar Sentence fragments Run-on sentencesSpellingPunctuationCapitalizationTransitionsSentence varietyIf you followed the plan, organization and structure is done!