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Double Data Rate SDRAM – The Next Generation An overview of the industry roadmap for main system memory technology, and details on DDR which represents.

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Presentation on theme: "Double Data Rate SDRAM – The Next Generation An overview of the industry roadmap for main system memory technology, and details on DDR which represents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Double Data Rate SDRAM – The Next Generation An overview of the industry roadmap for main system memory technology, and details on DDR which represents the latest state of the art for SDRAM. We will cover: The industry standards process for product definition The evolution of main memories Comparing DDR to SDRAM DDR configuration options & applications Design tricks for DDR systems What’s next for main memory?

2 The JEDEC Standards Process

3 JEDEC is a non-profit standards organization 265 member companies from all over the world Suppliers & users and even competitors Working together to expand the market

4 How standards get done Any company presents a market need Interested companies form a Task Group TG does development, submits ballot to committee Feedback from voting incorporated into spec The new standard is published Task Group reforms as needed for enhancements

5 Industry Evolution from SDRAM to DDR

6 Main Memory DRAM Evolution 320MB/s 400MB/s 1000MB/s 2100MB/s Mainstream Memories FP EDO SDRAM DDR Simple, incremental steps DDR II 4800MB/s

7 Cost remains constant The top three factors driving memory evolution 1.Cost 2.Cost 3.Cost The price of memory has remained essentially constant Each incremental enhancement must “come for free” “Free” means similar evolution of costs: –Direct: die size, packaging, testers, licensing –Indirect: PCB complexity, heat sinks, support components –2x indirect: dummy continuity boards

8 What is DDR? Internally, DDR is an SDRAM with ping pong registers Data is posted on rising and falling edges of the clock Commands still sampled on rising edge

9 How Different is DDR? Simple upgrade from SDRAM designs –Same PCB characteristics: 60   6  –Same RAS/CAS command set A few evolutionary improvements –Low voltage swing I/O –Differential clocks –Source synchronous data strobe

10 DDR low voltage signaling SSTL_2 low voltage swing inputs –2.5V I/O with 1.25V reference voltage –Low voltage swing with termination –Rail to rail if unterminated DDR

11 DDR Differential Clocks Route differential clocks on adjacent traces Timing is relative to crosspoint Helps insure 50% duty cycle

12 DDR Read Timing – Data delivered on both edges of CK Data valid on rising & falling edges Data Strobe “DQS” travels with data DLL aligns data to clock edges

13 Emphasis on “Matched” DM/DQS loading identical to DQ Route as independent 8 bit buses DQ/DQS DM V REF Disable CONTROLLERDDR SDRAM

14 Combining 8 bit buses into internal bus width Each byte samples using DQS as input strobe Input buffers capture one odd and one even byte Commit to FIFO on controller clock DQ DM DQS 8 DQ DM DQS 8 DQ DM DQS 8 Internal Memory FIFO Clocked in memory time domain Clocked in controller time domain

15 DDR Configuration Options for Different Applications

16 DDR Configurations TSOP SO-DIMM DIMM TQFP

17 DDR Configurations, Chips  66 pin TSOP-II –Inexpensive high volume plastic package –Compatible pinout for X4, X8, X16 –64Mb to 512Mb; 1Gb in development  100 pin TQFP –Inexpensive high volume plastic package –X32 configuration –64Mb and 128Mb

18 DDR Configurations, Modules  Desktop & Server 184 pins, 5.25” long X64 or X72 (ECC) 64MB to 2GB Mobile & Small Form Factor  200 pins, 2.7” long X64 or X72 (ECC) 32MB to 512MB

19 DDR Unbuffered DIMM Least expensive module Limits number of loads supportable Address bus hits all DDR SDRAMs Fastest access time Data Address DDR SDRAM

20 DDR Registered DIMM Doubles density of each module or halves number of address buses needed Address bus latched before going to DDR SDRAMs Access time increased by one clock Data Address Register DDR SDRAM

21 DDR Tips and Tricks for Power Management

22 Power Management Relative Power CPU Clocks of Latency** Active on100%0 * 5 = 0 Inactive on 3 * 5 = 15 Active off 1 * 5 = 5 Inactive off0.2%4 * 5 = 20 Sleep 0.4%200*5 = 1000 Power State* 12% 4% * Not industry standard terms – simplified for brevity **Assumes 5 CPU clocks per memory clock Open Page Closed Page

23 Power: DDR vs SDRAM PC-100 1X DDR-266 3X PC-133 0.8X DDR-333 2.6X (est)

24 What’s next for DDR?

25 Next: Enhancing DDR from 266 to 333 MHz data rate Qualification of DDR333 under way Possibly different DDR SDRAM packages for each solution: –Unbuffered DIMM: FBGA –Registered DIMM: TSOP –SO-DIMM: TSOP –Point to point: TSOP

26 Next: Small Packages FBGA Lower inductance Lower capacitance Smaller footprint Tighter layouts enabled Details: Package size = 104 mm 2 = 54% smaller Inductance: 1.7nH lower Inductance variation, pin to pin: 3X less Capacitance: 0.5pF lower Performance gain: 300ps of data valid time

27 Next: DDR FET Switched DIMM Quadruples density of each module or doubles number of DIMM slots Address bus latched before going to DDR SDRAMs Data bus sees a single load per slot Additional bus turnaround latency Data Address Register FET DDR SDRAM

28 Next: DDR MicroDIMM Half the size of the DDR SO-DIMM Half the capacity if using TSOP – or – Same capacity if using FBGA Target markets: –PDAs –Internet appliances –Subnotebook computers

29 Next: DDR II Work well under way on DDR II Double the speed Lower power Migration path from DDR I –Same controller can use DDR I and DDR II –Compatible process technologies

30 Conclusions DDR is a result of collaboration between many companies Cost drives incremental evolutionary steps DDR is a simple evolution of SDRAM technology Configuration options available for different applications Use tricks and techniques to exploit DDR’s features The future of DDR is in evolutionary steps

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