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LOGO. www.themegallery.com  Concept:  Is read-only memory.  Do not lose data when power is lost.  ROM memory is used to produce chips with integrated.

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Presentation on theme: "LOGO. www.themegallery.com  Concept:  Is read-only memory.  Do not lose data when power is lost.  ROM memory is used to produce chips with integrated."— Presentation transcript:

1 LOGO

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3  Concept:  Is read-only memory.  Do not lose data when power is lost.  ROM memory is used to produce chips with integrated CMOS BIOS program  Characteristics of the ROM BIOS  BIOS ROM containing the software configuration and system diagnostics, and routine input / output low level that DOS uses.  These programs are encoded in ROM and is called firmware.  An important feature of the ROM BIOS is detecting new hardware in the computer and reconfigure the operating system as device driver. ROM (Read Only Memory)

4 ROM Types  PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)  Type of ROM that information is only installed once.  The CD can be called PROM.  EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM):  Type of ROM that can erase and rewrite it.  "CD-Erasable" can be called EPROM.  EEPROM ( Electronic Erasable Programmable ROM ):  It form enhence of EPROM, a difference compared to the EPROM is able to write and remove the information again and again by software rather than hardware.  Example: "CD-Rewritable".  Application specific EEPROM is "flash BIOS". ROM is the type of information can install or upgrade software.

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6 RAM – Random Access Memory  Concept:  RAM (Random Access Memory) to store in direct service programs for the processing of the CPU.  The RAM is only temporary data storage and data will be deleted when power off.  RAM operation  Enter your information will be stored in RAM, then CPU will retrieve data from RAM to handle.  Types of RAM  SRAM (Static RAM): SRAM is a type of RAM data storage without the need to update regularly (static).  DRAM (Dynamic RAM) DRAM is a type of RAM should regularly update the data (high refresh rate).

7 SRAM – Static RAM  Characteristics:  Allow faster access than DRAM  The memory chips are made of the transistors (switches) and capacitors.  Transistor SRAM can hold state power.  SRAM is more expensive than DRAM  Ex: L1, L2, L3 cache.

8 DRAM - Dynamic RAM  Characteristics:  Dynamic RAM is mounted on the modules: DIMM, SIMM or RIMM.  Be plugged directly into the motherboard  The most popular form factors:  SIMM  DIMM  RIMM  SoDIMM

9 SIMM - Single In-Line Memory Module

10 DIMM - Dual Inline Memory Module  DIMMs are 64-bit memory modules  The DIMM RAM family: SDRAM, DDR, and DDR2.  SDRAM: ( Synchronous DRAM) With 84 pins per side, this makes 168 independent pins on each standard.SDRAM module and two keys notches.

11  DDR SDRAM (Double-Data Rate SDRAM) memory has a total of 184 pins and a single keying notch.

12  DDR2 has a total of 240 pins, one keying notch, and an aluminum cover for both sides

13 RIMM - Rambus DRAM  A RIMM is a custom memory module that varies in physical specification based on whether it is a 16-bit or 32-bit module.  The 16-bit modules have 184 pins and two keying notches.  The 32-bit modules have 232 pins and only one keying notch.

14 SoDIMM - Small Outline DIMM  Memory in use for notebook and other computers that require much smaller components don’t use standard RAM packages like the SIMM or the DIMM.  Including: 144-pin EDO, 144-pin SDRAM and 200-pin DDR/DDR2.

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16 Structure Of Memory Chip

17 17  RAS - Row Address Strobe  CAS - Column Address Strobe  Address Bus: signal address between RAS and CAS.  Data Bus is the data path between memory controller and memory chips.  Column Address Decoder.  Row Address Decoder.  Row(column) addr latch.  Write Enable: check section to read - write the memory cell.

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19 The specifications of the RAM  Bus speed: measured in MHz, is that the volume of data in RAM can be transmitted to the CPU once handled.  Retrieve data speed: measured in billionths of a second (nanosecond), the time interval between two data acquisition of RAM  Capacity: measured in MB (megabytes), showing a maximum level of stocks of RAM when the RAM data completely empty.  RAM ECC (Error Correction Code): This is a technique to test and debug in case of a bit of memory was incorrect value data during transport.

20 Bandwidth of RAM  Single Channel  BandWidth = Bus Speed *8  Ex: DDR-SDRAM 400 MHZ BandWidth = 400 *8 = 3200MB/s, is called PC3200.  Dual Channel  BandWidth = Bus Speed * 2*8 = Bus Speed * 16  Ex: DDR 400 MHz => Bandwidth = 400*16 = 6400  Is called

21 LOGO THANK YOU


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