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Nomination – the naming of those who will seek office (5 ways) Nomination – the naming of those who will seek office (5 ways) The process of candidate.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomination – the naming of those who will seek office (5 ways) Nomination – the naming of those who will seek office (5 ways) The process of candidate."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Nomination – the naming of those who will seek office (5 ways) Nomination – the naming of those who will seek office (5 ways) The process of candidate selection is a critically important step in the election process. The process of candidate selection is a critically important step in the election process.

4 How does the nominating process have a big impact on our right to vote? How does the nominating process have a big impact on our right to vote? Nominating limits our choices in an election. Nominating limits our choices in an election.

5 One-party constituencies (those areas where one party regularly wins elections). One-party constituencies (those areas where one party regularly wins elections). The nominating process usually is the only point at which there is any real contest for a public office. The nominating process usually is the only point at which there is any real contest for a public office.

6 Primary election General Election DemocratsRepublicans

7 What is a general election? What is a general election? Regularly scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection. Regularly scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection.

8 Self Announce Caucus Convention Direct Primary Petition

9 Self-announcement is the oldest form of the nominating process in American politics Self-announcement is the oldest form of the nominating process in American politics First used in colonial times, found today in small towns and rural areas. First used in colonial times, found today in small towns and rural areas.

10 A person announces they want to run for office. A person announces they want to run for office. Who uses this? Who uses this? Someone who failed to win their party’s nomination. Someone who failed to win their party’s nomination.

11 A group of like-minded people who meet to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election. A group of like-minded people who meet to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election. Originally the caucus was a private meeting consisting of a few influential figures in the community. Originally the caucus was a private meeting consisting of a few influential figures in the community.

12 What happened when Political Parties started appearing? What happened when Political Parties started appearing? Political parties began to broaden the membership of the caucus. Political parties began to broaden the membership of the caucus.

13 The legislative caucus is a meeting of a party’s members in the state or federal Congress – the legislators would choose who would run for office. The legislative caucus is a meeting of a party’s members in the state or federal Congress – the legislators would choose who would run for office.

14 They were practical in their day because of transportation and communication issues. They were practical in their day because of transportation and communication issues. As democracy spread, why did opposition grow to the caucus? As democracy spread, why did opposition grow to the caucus? Critics felt they closed and unrepresentative in nature. Critics felt they closed and unrepresentative in nature.

15 The caucus is still used to make local nominations (New England) and is open to all members of a party. The caucus is still used to make local nominations (New England) and is open to all members of a party.

16 As the caucus method collapsed, the convention system took its place. As the caucus method collapsed, the convention system took its place. Who had the 1 st national convention to nominate a presidential candidate? Who had the 1 st national convention to nominate a presidential candidate? Anti-Mason Party in 1931 Anti-Mason Party in 1931

17 The process begins in local caucus and works its way up to through the country, state and then the national level. The process begins in local caucus and works its way up to through the country, state and then the national level. The convention system began to come under attack in the early 1900s and was to be replaced by another method. The convention system began to come under attack in the early 1900s and was to be replaced by another method.

18 Party Bosses began to manipulate the process. Party Bosses began to manipulate the process. The convention system began to come under attack in the early 1900s and was to be replaced by another method. The convention system began to come under attack in the early 1900s and was to be replaced by another method.

19 A direct primary is an intra-party election to pick that party’s candidate for the general election. A direct primary is an intra-party election to pick that party’s candidate for the general election. State laws require that the major parties use the primaries to choose their candidates for the Senate, House, governorship, etc. State laws require that the major parties use the primaries to choose their candidates for the Senate, House, governorship, etc. First used in Wisconsin in 1903

20 Party nominating election in which ONLY declared party members can vote. Party nominating election in which ONLY declared party members can vote. Party membership is established by registration. Party membership is established by registration. Found in 27 states

21 Party nominating election in which ANY qualified voter can take part. Party nominating election in which ANY qualified voter can take part. Found in 23 states

22 Through 2000, 3 states have used a different version of the open primary called the blanket primary Through 2000, 3 states have used a different version of the open primary called the blanket primary

23 All voters receive same ballot and can vote for any party for any office they like. All voters receive same ballot and can vote for any party for any office they like. California’s version was ruled Unconstitutional. California’s version was ruled Unconstitutional.

24 Those who favor the closed primary argue: Those who favor the closed primary argue: It prevents one party from “raiding” the other’s primary in the hope of nominating a weaker candidate. Candidates are more responsive to the party and its members. Candidates are more responsive to the party and its members. How does it make voters more thoughtful? How does it make voters more thoughtful? Voters must choose between the parties in order to vote in the primaries Voters must choose between the parties in order to vote in the primaries

25 It compromises the secrecy of the ballot. It compromises the secrecy of the ballot. It tends to exclude independent voters from the nomination process. It tends to exclude independent voters from the nomination process.

26 Against Closed: Against Closed: 1. Compromises secret ballot 2. Tends to exclude independent voters from the nomination process For Closed: For Closed: 1. Prevents one party from raiding another party’s primary 2. Makes candidates more responsive to party members 3. Voters make more thoughtful in choosing a party

27 Winner needs an absolute majority (more than 50%) Winner needs an absolute majority (more than 50%) Top 2 vote getters in the 1 st primary “Run-Off” or face one another in a 2 nd election. Top 2 vote getters in the 1 st primary “Run-Off” or face one another in a 2 nd election.

28 These are elections in which candidates are not identified by party labels. These are elections in which candidates are not identified by party labels. Typically, a contender who wins a clear majority runs unopposed in the general election. Typically, a contender who wins a clear majority runs unopposed in the general election.

29 The direct primary was intended to take the nominating function out of the hands of the party organization and give it to the party membership. The direct primary was intended to take the nominating function out of the hands of the party organization and give it to the party membership.

30 A number of criticisms have been leveled at the direct primary: A number of criticisms have been leveled at the direct primary: Closed vs. open arguments Closed vs. open arguments A tough primary fight can cost a lot of money, thus adding to cost running for office (this keeps well qualified people away) A tough primary fight can cost a lot of money, thus adding to cost running for office (this keeps well qualified people away)

31 What is the ‘divisive effect’ on the party? What is the ‘divisive effect’ on the party? A bitter primary can weaken and divide a party for the general election. A bitter primary can weaken and divide a party for the general election. Many voters are not well informed on the candidates, so name familiarity is key because it gives a contender an edge. Many voters are not well informed on the candidates, so name familiarity is key because it gives a contender an edge.

32 Is an election that is held as one part of the process by which presidential candidates are chosen. Is an election that is held as one part of the process by which presidential candidates are chosen. Very complex process. Very complex process.

33 Nominating by means of petitions signed by a certain number of required qualified voters in the election district. Nominating by means of petitions signed by a certain number of required qualified voters in the election district. When is this method used? When is this method used? Mostly at the local level. Mostly at the local level.

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35 Democratic government cannot succeed unless elections are free, honest, and accurate. Democratic government cannot succeed unless elections are free, honest, and accurate. The lengthy and closely detailed provisions of the election law are meant to protect the integrity of the electoral process. The lengthy and closely detailed provisions of the election law are meant to protect the integrity of the electoral process.

36 Most election law in the US is State law, but the Constitution does give Congress some power over elections: Most election law in the US is State law, but the Constitution does give Congress some power over elections: Set the date of elections. Set the date of elections. Must have secret ballots. Must have secret ballots. Amendments that deal with suffrage Amendments that deal with suffrage

37 Why did Congress pass the bill? Why did Congress pass the bill? Election of 2000 Election of 2000 Some of the major provisions of the bill: Some of the major provisions of the bill: Replace lever-operated and punch-card voting devices by 2006 Replace lever-operated and punch-card voting devices by 2006 Upgrade administration of elections Upgrade administration of elections

38 A voter’s eligibility has been challenged…but can vote and the voter’s qualification can be checked or verified later. A voter’s eligibility has been challenged…but can vote and the voter’s qualification can be checked or verified later.

39 Congress set the date for national elections (Tuesday after the 1 st Monday in November). Congress set the date for national elections (Tuesday after the 1 st Monday in November). Explanation of: Explanation of: Never on a Sunday (Church and state) Never on a Sunday (Church and state) 1 st day of month is often payday (pressure from employer) 1 st day of month is often payday (pressure from employer)

40 Some states have allowed for early voting in an effort to increase voter turnout and make voting more convenient. Some states have allowed for early voting in an effort to increase voter turnout and make voting more convenient.

41 Voting by those unable to get to their regular polling places on election day. Voting by those unable to get to their regular polling places on election day. Designed for: Designed for: 1. Sick/Ill 2. Disabled 3. Away from home

42 This occurs when a strong candidate running for an office at the top of the ballot helps attract voters to other candidates on the party’s ticket. This occurs when a strong candidate running for an office at the top of the ballot helps attract voters to other candidates on the party’s ticket. Reverse Coattail: Reverse Coattail: Candidate at top of ticket can HURT other party members. Candidate at top of ticket can HURT other party members.

43 A precinct is a voting district. A precinct is a voting district. Smallest geographic units for elections. Smallest geographic units for elections. What are the sizes of precincts? What are the sizes of precincts? 500 to 1000 qualified voters 500 to 1000 qualified voters

44 A polling place is the place where the voters who live in a precinct actually vote. A polling place is the place where the voters who live in a precinct actually vote. A precinct election board supervises the polling place and voting process in each precinct. A precinct election board supervises the polling place and voting process in each precinct.

45 IDENTIFY some of the responsibilities of the board: IDENTIFY some of the responsibilities of the board: Make sure only qualified voters vote. Make sure only qualified voters vote. Machines work Machines work Count the votes Count the votes

46 One from each party : are allowed at each polling place. One from each party : are allowed at each polling place. They may challenge any voter they believe is not qualified. They may challenge any voter they believe is not qualified. Check to be sure that their own party’s supporters do vote. Check to be sure that their own party’s supporters do vote. Monitor the whole voting process, including the ballot count. Monitor the whole voting process, including the ballot count.

47 Define Ballot: Define Ballot: A device used to record a voter’s choices. A device used to record a voter’s choices. Over the history of the United States voting has taken many shapes (voice, paper ballots) and corruption led to a demand for ballot reforms. Over the history of the United States voting has taken many shapes (voice, paper ballots) and corruption led to a demand for ballot reforms.

48 Each State now provides for a secret ballot. Each State now provides for a secret ballot. Ballots are cast in such a manner that others cannot know how a person voted. Ballots are cast in such a manner that others cannot know how a person voted.

49 1. Printed at public expense 2. Lists names of all candidates 3. Given out only at polls 4. Marked in secret

50 Candidates are grouped on this ballot by office they are running for. Candidates are grouped on this ballot by office they are running for. Sometimes called the Massachusetts ballot because of its early use (1888) there. Sometimes called the Massachusetts ballot because of its early use (1888) there.

51 Lists each party’s candidates in a column under the party’s name. Lists each party’s candidates in a column under the party’s name. Good: parties like because it promotes straight-ticket voting Good: parties like because it promotes straight-ticket voting Bad: does not take much thought in the voting process. Bad: does not take much thought in the voting process.

52 Can help voters prepare for an election. Can help voters prepare for an election. They are mailed in some states and appear in newspapers in others. They are mailed in some states and appear in newspapers in others.

53 The ballot in a typical American election is lengthy because it may list so many offices, candidates and ballot measures. The ballot in a typical American election is lengthy because it may list so many offices, candidates and ballot measures. Even the most informed voters had a difficult time marking it intelligently. Even the most informed voters had a difficult time marking it intelligently.

54 Origin of : Origin of : Jacksonian Democracy in the 1830s Jacksonian Democracy in the 1830s More offices meant more democratic the government was More offices meant more democratic the government was

55 Critics say it is hard to know the candidates and their qualifications on such a long ballot – thus it is bad for democracy. Critics say it is hard to know the candidates and their qualifications on such a long ballot – thus it is bad for democracy.

56 Well over half the votes now cast in national elections are cast on some type of voting machine or electronic voting device. Describe the lever-operated machines: Pull one lever to open (unlock ballot) and another to close or actually vote Pull one lever to open (unlock ballot) and another to close or actually vote

57 Electronic data processing (EDP) techniques were first applied to the voting process in the 1960s. Punch-card ballots (counted by computers) were the most widely used. Punch-card ballots (counted by computers) were the most widely used.

58 What was the major problem of the punch-card ballots? What was the major problem of the punch-card ballots? If voter failed to make clean punch, the result was a ‘hanging chad” that would not count as a vote. If voter failed to make clean punch, the result was a ‘hanging chad” that would not count as a vote.

59 The use of punch- card ballots ended by 2006, due to the Help Americans Vote Act of 2002 after the 2000 presidential election mess. The use of punch- card ballots ended by 2006, due to the Help Americans Vote Act of 2002 after the 2000 presidential election mess.

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61 What are most states now turning to for more efficient EDP- based voting systems? What are most states now turning to for more efficient EDP- based voting systems? Touch screens or scantron like voting. Touch screens or scantron like voting.

62 A number of states conduct some elections by mail. A number of states conduct some elections by mail. Voters receive a ballot in the mail, make their choices, and then mail the ballot back to election officials. Voters receive a ballot in the mail, make their choices, and then mail the ballot back to election officials. Which state today conducts all of its elections by mail? Which state today conducts all of its elections by mail? OREGON OREGON

63 Critics of: Critics of: 1. Threatens secret ballot 2. Threat of fraud from stolen ballots Supporters of: Supporters of: 1. Just as fraud proof as any other method 2. Increases voter turnout 3. Saves money

64 Casting ballots via the Internet has attracted considerable attention in the past few years. Casting ballots via the Internet has attracted considerable attention in the past few years. There have been some votes cast on- line in the past several years. There have been some votes cast on- line in the past several years.

65 Critics of: Critics of: 1. Digital disaster 2. Hacker fraud 3. Voter secrecy 4. Digital Divide Supporters of: Supporters of: 1. Increase voter participation 2. Increase turnout 3. Reduce costs of voting

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67 The presidential election eats up by the largest share of campaign dollars - $2 billion for primaries and general election in The presidential election eats up by the largest share of campaign dollars - $2 billion for primaries and general election in The cost of congressional campaigns also continues to climb each cycle. The cost of congressional campaigns also continues to climb each cycle.

68 Where is all this money being spent? Where is all this money being spent? Radio and TV Radio and TV Campaign Staff Campaign Staff Polls, mailings, web Polls, mailings, web Office space Office space Travel Travel

69 Private and Public Sources. Private and Public Sources. Private givers have always been the major sources of campaign funds and they come in various shapes and sizes: Private givers have always been the major sources of campaign funds and they come in various shapes and sizes:

70 Individuals both small and wealthy Individuals both small and wealthy What is a PAC? What is a PAC? Political Action Committee Political Action Committee Political Arms of special interest groups Political Arms of special interest groups

71 Temporary organizations - groups formed for the immediate purpose of a campaign, including fund raising. Temporary organizations - groups formed for the immediate purpose of a campaign, including fund raising. How do parties attempt to raise money? How do parties attempt to raise money? Dinners, receptions and other fund raisers. Dinners, receptions and other fund raisers.

72 Campaign donations are a form of political participation and those who make them do so for several reasons:

73 They believe in a party or candidate. They believe in a party or candidate. Want something in return, maybe access to the government. Want something in return, maybe access to the government. Some big donors want appointments to public office, while others want to keep the ones they have. Some big donors want appointments to public office, while others want to keep the ones they have. EXPLAIN the social recognition reason: EXPLAIN the social recognition reason: Dinner at White House, meeting with Cabinet official, etc. Dinner at White House, meeting with Cabinet official, etc.

74 Congress first began to regulate the use of money in federal election in 1907 and since then, Congress has passed major campaign finance laws. Congress first began to regulate the use of money in federal election in 1907 and since then, Congress has passed major campaign finance laws. Congress does not have the power to regulate state and local elections – that is up to each individual state. Congress does not have the power to regulate state and local elections – that is up to each individual state.

75 The Federal Election Commission (FEC) administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance. The Federal Election Commission (FEC) administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance.

76 It was set up in 1974 (after Watergate) and it an independent agency with 6 members. It was set up in 1974 (after Watergate) and it an independent agency with 6 members. Why is it hard for the FEC to do an effective job? Why is it hard for the FEC to do an effective job? It is both underfunded and understaffed. It is both underfunded and understaffed.

77 Disclosure requirements are intended to spotlight the place of money in federal campaigns. Disclosure requirements are intended to spotlight the place of money in federal campaigns. What types of contributions are prohibited? What types of contributions are prohibited? Cash over $100, foreign contributions, in someone else’s name Cash over $100, foreign contributions, in someone else’s name

78 Made through a single campaign committee, which can only spend that candidate’s campaign money.

79 All contributions and spending must be closely accounted for. All contributions and spending must be closely accounted for. What about the disclosure of contributions or loans? What about the disclosure of contributions or loans? Any over $200 must be identified by source and date Any over $200 must be identified by source and date

80 There are limits on how much an individual can give to a federal candidate. There are limits on how much an individual can give to a federal candidate. $2600 per election, per candidate $2600 per election, per candidate

81 Neither corporations nor labor unions can contribute to any candidate running for a federal office – but their PACs can and do. Neither corporations nor labor unions can contribute to any candidate running for a federal office – but their PACs can and do. A PACs clout comes from their ability to raise campaign money and their willingness to give it to their “friends” who run for public office. A PACs clout comes from their ability to raise campaign money and their willingness to give it to their “friends” who run for public office.

82 The Supreme Court decision on Buckley v. Valeo (1976) was key to the issue of spending limits. The Supreme Court decision on Buckley v. Valeo (1976) was key to the issue of spending limits. Why did the Supreme Court strike down spending limits? Why did the Supreme Court strike down spending limits? Free Speech issue with spending money. Free Speech issue with spending money.

83 The 1971 Revenue Act allowed for everyone who files a federal income tax return to ‘check off’ $3 to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The 1971 Revenue Act allowed for everyone who files a federal income tax return to ‘check off’ $3 to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The monies collected are used every four years to finance the following: The monies collected are used every four years to finance the following:

84 Preconvention Campaigns Preconvention Campaigns National Conventions National Conventions Presidential Campaigns – unless candidate turns down $$$ Presidential Campaigns – unless candidate turns down $$$


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