2 SEC. I COMPROMISE OF 1850 MEXICAN CESSION Issue of slavery not resolved by Constitution; so a problemeach time territory is added to USa. N- land for small farmers; S – land for plantations/slaveryMO Compromise 1820 – brief settlement for land acquiredby Louisiana PurchaseCA and NM Territories south of 36 degree line; now what?Wilmot Proviso – amendment to a spending bill for war-called for a ban on slavery in the lands acquired from MX;passed House, not Senatea. First issue purely sectional voteb. Southern Whigs joined S. Democrats against it
3 B. ELECTION OF 1848 Polk in ill health, does not run Democrats nominated Lewis Cass (MI)a. Popular sovereignty – allow people of territory to voteNew political partiesa. Liberty – anti-slavery, seen as radical, no compromiseb. Free-Soil – slavery can stay where it already exists; but noexpansion of slavery into new territories (CA & NM)Not an abolitionist partyWhig party – chooses another militaryhero w/no position on issue of slavery;Zachary Taylor (who also dies in office)
4 ELECTION OF 1848Democrat: L. Cass elec votes; Whig: Z. Taylor electFree Soil: M. Van Buren- 0 electoral votesTaylor promotes admission of CA as free state, settlers are gold diggers, not slaveholdersSoutherners feared NM would also come in as free; MXhad previously outlawed slavery; Calhoun proposesconvention to discuss the northern aggression, secession?
5 C. COMPROMISE OF 1850Sen. Henry Clay tries to work a mega compromise bill:a. CA would be admitted as a free stateb. NM Terr (inc AZ) to decide by pop sovc. NM get disputed land & US pay TX debtsd. Slave trade would end in District of Columbiae. South would have stronger fugitive slave lawDebate cont’d for 7 months…..a. Elder statesmen of Congress urged solutionJohn CalhounHenry Clay
6 COMPROMISENew Leaders reached compromise – S. Douglas (IL), J. Davis (MS) & W. Seward (NY)a. Pres. Taylor died in office; succeeded by Fillmore, whosupported compromiseb. Sen. Douglas introduced the parts separately for vote,all passed
7 SALMON P. CHASE, senator (OH) & judge “The question of slavery in the territories has been avoided. It has not been settled.”
8 D. FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW1. Fugitive Slave Law most controversial a. Prof slave catchers seized Afr Am in the N b. 9 northern states passed laws to not cooperate w/ federal recapture efforts c. New law supported slave owners; fugitives could not testify & penalties on whites who asst’d slaves d. 30,000-40,000 African Am fled to Canada 2. Violence – 1851 and 1854 incidents in Boston where mobs tried to free captured African Americans
9 SEC. II POLITICAL UPHEAVAL 1852-56 ELECTION OF 1852Whig: Gen. W. Scott (42) Dem: F. Pierce (254)Free Soil: Hale (0) took votes from Whig PartyWhigs tried to promote other issues – tariff, bank, internal…but public not interested, Democ focused on expansion, not slavery
10 B. KANSAS – NEBRASKA ACT 1854Ostend Manifesto 1854– Pres. Pierce attempted to buy Cuba from Spain for $130 million….documents leaked from Belg;Northerners were angry at the conspiracy to extend slavery;part of plan to expand US commerce/democ in W. Hemis.Young America movement – focus on Western Hemispherea. Wm Walker – 3 attempts to invade Nicaraguab. Commodore Matthew Perry – traveled to Japan, agreed to a commercial treaty
11 3. KANSAS – NEBRASKA ACT, 1854a. Settlers wanted land opened west of MO (ok to move Native Americans from Great Plains)b. Need for transcontinental RR to connect to West(Chicago favored by N; St. Louis or New Orleans by S)c. Bill sponsored by Senator S. Douglas,Illinois senator, who had hopes for 1860presidential run
12 KS-NEB ACT Douglas’ proposal to get Southerners to agree: a. slavery to be determined by popular sovereigntyb. Area divided into 2 territories: NE & KS (more likely slave)Passed in 1854; full support of South & some N. DemocratsCaused outcry in North – it repealed Missouri Compromise (1820)a anti-Nebraska rallies in the Northb. Led to creation of Republican Party – anti NE Whigs & Dem8. Nov Congressional elections – Repubs won maj in House
13 C. BLEEDING KANSASMost settlers to KS were “border ruffians” from Missouri;pro-slavery towns – Leavenworth, Atchison, LecomptonNew England Emigrant Aid Society – L. Beecher’s org to send anti-slavery emigrants to KS; Lawrence, Topeka & Man.a. “Beecher’s Bibles” term for rifles that arrived in boxes marked BOOKS.Bleeding Kansas – violence in Kansasa. Wakarusa War – Dec. 1, 1855 – Missourians attacked Lawrenceb. Sacking of Lawrence – May 21, 1856 – Missourians and William Quantrill set fire to Free State Hotel and destroyed two printing presses
14 BLEEDING KS CONT.Pottawatomie Massacre – May 24, 1856 – John Brown and abolitionists hacked 5 proslavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek.d. Battle of Black Jack -June 2, 1856 – Brown led attack on a group of Missourians in KS
16 4 CONSTITUTIONS IN KS Constitutional Controversy a. Topeka Const – Nov. 11, 1855 – outlaw slavery & exclude African Americans from KS. Not accepted by Congressb. Lecompton Const – Nov.7, 1857 – allow slavery by vote; boycotted by Free Staters & pro-slavery as it was changed; presented to Congress, rejectedc. Leavenworth Const – May 18, 1858 – no slavery, included women’s rights; US Congress refused itd. Wyandotte Const – Oct. 4, 1859 – outlawed slavery, adopted by people; and Congress admitted KS on Jan 29, 1861
18 D. NEW POLITICAL PARTIES 1849 – Know-Nothing Partya. Opposed immigrants, esp Irish-Catholic, younger workersb. Propaganda that foreign agents would take overc. Goal – lengthen time for immigrants to become citizensd. Northern support as anti-KS-NE Acte won state offices in MA, PA, TX, KYRepublican partya. Former Whigs & Free-Soilers, anti-KS-NE Actb. Pushed economics – opportunities lost if territories open to slavery in the West – unfair competition; tariff & transport.
19 VIOLENCE IN THE SENATE 1856May 1856 – Senator Charles Sumner (Mass) speech –“The Crime Against Kansas” – accused southerners of causing the violence in KS, particularly Sen. Butler of SC.a. Butler’s nephew, Rep. Brooks, incensed by speechb. Went to Sumner’s office, confronted him & hit him numerous times over the head w/ his canec. Sumner collapsed, bleeding, unconscious; could not return to Senate for 4 yearsd. Brooks was censured by House, but hero in the South
20 E. ELECTION OF 1856Rep: John Fremont elect; Dem: James Buchanan (174) American Party (KN) – Millard Fillmore Rising republican party caused fear in Democrats
21 SEC. III HOUSE DIVIDED 1857-60 CULTURAL SECTIONALISM Literature was divideda. Poe and Simms wrote proslavery verseb. Melville, Emerson & Thoreau – antislavery prosec. Harriet B. Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852cruel overseer Simon Legree, and the problemsof slaves on the plantation – children sold, attempts to runaway…also dramatized by theater companies.Lincoln “So you are the little lady that has brought this great war.”
23 B. DRED SCOTT DECISION- JAN. 1858 Dred Scott was a slave to Dr. Emerson, an army surgeon, who took his slave from Missouri into Illinois, a free state.Dr. Emerson died in 1846 & his widow “rented” out ScottScott sued Mrs. Emerson on the grounds that living in a free state made him free – Mo circuit court agreed, but John Emerson, widow’s brother, claimed ownership and filed a claim in the MO supreme court which reversed the earlier.4. Scott sued in federal court & was heard bythe Supreme Court – Chief Justice Taney wrotemajority decision, a defeat for antislavery.
24 DRED SCOTT….a. Because Dred Scott was a slave, he was property not a citizen, therefore had no right to sue in federal court; b. The 5th Amendment guarantees right to property will not be denied by the federal govt w/o compensation c. Congress does not have the authority to deprive citizens of property; therefore Missouri Compromise was unconstitut’l
25 C. ILLINOIS SENATE RACE 1858 Senate race in Illinois a. Dem – Stephen Douglas, incumbentb. Rep - Abraham Lincoln, IL legis, one term in HouseSeries of debates across the state attended by thousands that resulted in national attentionPositionsa. Douglas – opposed citizenship, govt for whites, FreeportDoctrine – slavery could not exist in terr w/o legislationb. Lincoln – slavery morally wrong, not an abolitionist; butshould have basic rights (or could be denied to others)Also believed slavery took away opportunities for laborers
26 D. HARPERS FERRYSupported financially by eastern abolitionists, planned raid on federal arsenal in VA; arm slaves for a revoltOct. 16th he & 18 men attacked, but citizens, the militia & US army (commanded by Robert E. Lee) soon arrived.10 men killed, Brown surrounded, surrendered.Tried, convicted of treason, sentenced to be hangedUrged to plead guilty by reason of insanity, but refusedBecame martyr for the cause of abolitionSoutherners believed the Republican party put him up to it and advocated reopening the slave trade
27 E. ELECTION OF 1860 Rep: Abraham Lincoln (IL) 1, 865,593 180 S. Dem: JC Breckinridge (KY) ,Const Union: John Bell (TN) ,N. Dem: Stephen Douglas (IL) , 382,Dem split over popular sovereignty, ex-whigs formed Const Union party with no mention of slavery, Republicans focused on economic issues – tariff, internal imp, RR & a homestead bill.Lincoln chosen because of mod position & obscurity. How did Douglas receive so few electoral votes?Election of Lincoln considered the last straw for the South, who firmly believed the Republican president would end slavery.