3 Seminar Goals The student will be familiar with: –Historical overview of active shooter situations –Police lessons learned from school shootings –School and Police priorities during an active shooter situation –Contact /rescue team tactics for immediate deployment.
7 Texas Tower Incident First responders outgunned and/or didn’t have the training to respond to an active shooter situation. August 1, 1966 Austin TX Suspect, Charles Whitman Killed 15 people (including an unborn baby) Wounded 31 (as far away as two blocks) Resolved by two police officers
8 Columbine High School Littleton CO April 20, 1999 Littleton CO Suspects Harris and Klebold Killed 13 Wounded dozens Both suspects commit suicide
10 Lesson Learned Active shooter incidents are spontaneous. Suspects behavior unpredictable. Pre-incident signs existed in school incidents. Incidents occur in a target rich environment. A tactical intervention was too late. Multi-jurisdictional response issues were present.
11 Definitions Active Shooter –Suspect (s) activity is immediately causing death and serious bodily injury. The activity is not contained and there is immediate risk of death or serious injury to potential victims. Immediate Deployment –The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.
12 Definitions Dynamic Situation –The situation is evolving very rapidly along with the suspect’s action. Example, shooting and moving. Static Situation –The situation is not evolving or in motion, it suspect actions appear to be contained. Example, suspect is barricaded in a room.
13 Definitions Time Line of Violence –The period of time from the suspects first violent action until his action is stopped or he/she transitions to another activity. Incident Transition –That point in the incident where the “active shooter” stops his/her violent actions and tries to escape or barricades themselves.
14 Definitions Barricade Suspect Suspect is in a position of advantage, usually barricaded in a room or building. Suspect is armed and has displayed violence. May or may not be holding a hostage (s) There is no indication that the suspect(s) activity is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury. The event is not dynamic but rather static.
15 Resolution of an “Active Shooter” Situation Most likely by patrol. Non-traditional response. Minimum number of officers. Properly equipped. Properly trained. Able to transition to a barricade situation.
16 Police Priorities Lives of the Hostage (s) Lives of innocent bystanders Lives of police officers Lives of the suspect (s)
17 Police Priorities During An “Active Shooter” Situations The capture or neutralization of the suspect, as soon as possible. The lives of those in proximity of the shooter. The lives and safety of citizens in the area. The safety of police officers. Containment. After event investigation and a return to normalcy.
18 Police First Responder Tactics Position your patrol vehicle to act as cover with the best possible field of view. Use a target site numbering system consistent with department policy for points of reference. Collect and communicate assessment of situation clearly and concisely
Building - Side/Opening Designation... n Sides - Clockwise - starting with front as Side 1 n Levels - Bottom to top n Openings - left to right Side 1 - FRONT Side 2 Side 3 Side 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 1
Three Elements of Response Quick Assessment Communicate Assessment Quick Intervention
25 Quick Assessment Obtain as much information as possible en-route the location. –Suspect actions (static or dynamic), location, description, weapons –Victim injuries and location
26 Quick Assessment and Communications Upon arrival position yourself in the best possible location. –Determine if you have an active shooter or possible barricade situation. –Communicate your assessment.
29 Beslan School Shooting Imposing Males were used as “Forced” Labor and then Executed Terrorist Used Negotiations to buy time to Fortify Positions Terrorist used type amphetamine to stay awake/alert Entrances and Stairwells “Booby-Trapped” Children Used as Shields Perimeter Security Was Not Established
31 Immediate Deployment Tactics Contact-Rescue Team Concept
32 Immediate Deployment Definition... The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.
When Utilized... Stop aggressive, deadly behavior of suspect –Suspect(s) actively engaged in causing death or great bodily harm. e.g., “Active Shooter,” edged weapon assaults, explosives, etc. And... The location is believed to contain multiple victims. e.g., schools, parks, playgrounds, sporting events, day care, high-rise structures etc.
34 When Utilized... Citizen/Officer Rescue –Deadly assault(s) may or may not be on-going. –Delayed law enforcement action could result in continued injury to citizens/officers. –Delayed recovery of victim(s) could result in victim(s)’ demise
35 Immediate deployment tactics are not a substitute for conventional response to Barricaded Subjects.
36 How many does it take to make a contact team? 2 man 3 man 4 man 5 man
37 Organization of Contact Team Not etched in stone –Depends on available resources –Ideally, (3-4) Officers –Rescue Teams should have sufficient personnel to conduct systematic searches and moved the injured.
41 Team Member Responsibilities 1.Point Man Armed with shotgun (Slug ammo). Urban Police Rifle 2.Team Leader Delegates team member responsibilities. Formulates and implements plan. 3.Assistant Team Leader Communicates with responding units. Acts as additional Contact or Rescue Officer. 4.Rear Guard-Designated Cover Officer
42 Deployment... Organize Contact/Rescue teams. Attempt diagonal deployment and entry. –Multiple contact and rescue teams. Move to location and attempt to stop violence Coordinate 360 degree containment with other responding units after entry. Transition control to SWAT, if feasible
43 Contact Team Conduct Priority is to make CONTACT with the suspect(s). –Move with 360 degree coverage (point, flanks, rear). –Stop deadly behavior. –Limit movement of suspect(s).
44 Contact Team Will be confronted with chaos, fire alarms, sprinklers, screaming kids, injuries and death. –Continue past victim(s). –Continue past explosives. –Communicate progress to other responders.
45 Contact Team Provide preliminary assessment once inside: –Victim(s)’ locations and medical needs. Prioritize if possible. –Explosives - type and location. –Suspect(s)’ description and location –Types of weapons (if known).
46 Rescue Team Conduct Priority is RESCUE & RECOVERY of victim(s). –Identify suspect(s) location if possible. –Enter and/or approach location to locate victim(s). –Extract victim to a safe area and notify the Incident Commander. –Notify medical personnel if necessary. –When multiple victims are present... –Expand Rescue Team size as needed and emphasize: Custody, Control and Accountability of victims Coordinate actions with the Contact Team Leader and other responding personnel.
47 Victim Located... After locating victim, first officer steps over and provides cover. Cover danger areas. Secure victim and evacuate - communicate recovery to Incident Commander.
48 Contact/Rescue Team Movement From vehicles to the building Building entry Movement to contact –Halls –Stairs –Room entry and clearing Variety of configurations –Criss Cross
Contact Rescue Team Movement Hallways 4 1 3 2 1.DCO – Designated Cover Officer (Point man) 2.L.C. – Left Cover 3.R.C. – Right Cover 4.R.G. – Right Guard
Contact – Rescue Team Movement Past Open Doors 4 1 3 2 2 1 3 4
52 Considerations Losing contact with the suspect Suspect contact and apprehension Evacuations Use of deadly force Suppressive Fire What to expect on entry Encountering explosive devices
53 Losing Contact What do you do when the shots and the screaming stops during your entry? –Has the suspect committed suicide? –Has he taken hostage and barricaded himself? –Has he escaped. Have a plan!
54 Suspect Contact and Apprehension Primary goal –Stop suspect’s deadly behavior –Take suspect into custody Remain in a position of cover, bring suspect to you. Give clear and concise orders to suspect.
55 Evacuations Evacuations for an active shooter are not like a fire drill –Move to a safe distance behind cover Types of evacuations –Escorted Police accompany evacuees to safe area. –Unescorted Police direct evacuees to a safe area. When in doubt, have teachers and student secure themselves in a classroom until a police escort can be provided.
56 Use of Deadly Force... Based on IDOL (Immediate Defense Of Life). INDIVIDUAL OFFICER makes decision. Does not require approval from higher authority. Utilized to stop the threat. The law - “Objectively Reasonable.” no exception to the l aw... or policy
57 What To Expect Upon Entry... Noise, confusion, screaming, alarms etc. Victims hiding, confused and frightened - not responding to law enforcement directions. Carnage. Fire and sprinkler operations.
58 Encountering Explosives... Identify and report locations. Position an officer for protection. Don’t move - don’t touch. Visually inspect for potential detonation. –Trip wires, timing device burning fuse etc. Move past - continue to locate suspect(s) and/or victim(s).
59 SWAT Arrival During an Active Shooter Situation Coordinate and relinquish responsibility as soon as possible. Assist with containment responsibilities if necessary. Assist with rescue teams if necessary. Act as a “pathfinder” for responding SWAT personnel: –Direct to last known location of suspect(s) –Report location of explosives –Provide any additional pertinent information Weaponry, suspect description, etc.
60 Incident Transition Issues Suspect driven Is the suspect’s actions causing immediate death or serious bodily injury? Is he barricaded alone or does he have hostages? Should there be First Responder negotiations with the suspect?
62 Multi-jurisdictional Response Issues No formal agreement between agencies, is there liability? Incompatible communications. Critical Incident Management, full utilization of all resources. Consistent response procedures and tactics.
63 Multi-jurisdictional Response Proactive measures to ensure successful resolution of major violent incident. –Inter agency meetings with command staff –Resolve communications issues******* –Involve the non-law enforcement Crisis Manager***** (schools, blding reps) –Joint training on immediate deployment tactics –Joint training exercises at critical facility with live role players and other stimuli.