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1 RESPONSE TO ACTIVE SHOOTERS 2 Instructor Introductions.

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Presentation on theme: "1 RESPONSE TO ACTIVE SHOOTERS 2 Instructor Introductions."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 RESPONSE TO ACTIVE SHOOTERS

3 2 Instructor Introductions

4 3 Training Goals The student will be familiar with: The student will be familiar with: Historical overview of active shooter situations Historical overview of active shooter situations Police lessons learned from school shootings Police lessons learned from school shootings School “Armed Intruder” procedures School “Armed Intruder” procedures School priorities during an active shooter situation School priorities during an active shooter situation Police priorities during an active shooter situation Police priorities during an active shooter situation Police equipment and training needs Police equipment and training needs Contact /rescue team tactics for immediate deployment. Contact /rescue team tactics for immediate deployment.

5 4 Course Administration Items Roster Verification Course Critiques Safety Briefing

6 5 Pre-test

7 6 CBS Sixty Minutes Story What really happened at Columbine? What really happened at Columbine?

8 7

9 8 Active Shooter Intro Video Video #1, part 1

10 9 Familiar?

11 10 Texas Tower Incident August 1, 1966 August 1, 1966 Austin TX Austin TX Suspect, Charles Whitman Suspect, Charles Whitman Killed 15 people (including an unborn baby) Killed 15 people (including an unborn baby) Wounded 31 (as far away as two blocks) Wounded 31 (as far away as two blocks) Resolved by two police officers Resolved by two police officers

12 11 Other Active Shooter Incidents McDonald’s Massacre McDonald’s Massacre North Hollywood Bank Robbery North Hollywood Bank Robbery Columbine High School, Littleton, CO Columbine High School, Littleton, CO

13 12 McDonald’s Massacre July 18, 1984 July 18, 1984 San Ysidro, CA San Ysidro, CA Suspect, James Huberty, Suspect, James Huberty, Killed 21 Killed 21 Wounded 11 Wounded 11 Killed by Sniper Killed by Sniper San Ysidro California McDonald’s Restaurant July 18, 1984 James Huberty 21- persons killed

14 13 North Hollywood Bank Robbery February 27, 1997 February 27, 1997 North Hollywood, CA North Hollywood, CA Suspects, Larry Phillips and Emil Mosuranyo Suspects, Larry Phillips and Emil Mosuranyo Wounded 13 Wounded 13 One suspect commits suicide the other is killed by SWAT One suspect commits suicide the other is killed by SWAT

15 14 Columbine High School Littleton CO April 20, 1999 April 20, 1999 Littleton CO Littleton CO Suspects Harris and Klebold Suspects Harris and Klebold Killed 13 Killed 13 Wounded dozens Wounded dozens Both suspects commit suicide Both suspects commit suicide

16 15 Lesson Learned Active shooter incidents are spontaneous. Active shooter incidents are spontaneous. Suspects behavior unpredictable. Suspects behavior unpredictable. Pre-incident signs existed in school incidents. Pre-incident signs existed in school incidents. Incidents occur in a target rich environment. Incidents occur in a target rich environment. First responders outgunned and/or didn’t have the training to respond to an active shooter situation. First responders outgunned and/or didn’t have the training to respond to an active shooter situation. A tactical intervention was too late. A tactical intervention was too late. Multi-jurisdictional response issues were present. Multi-jurisdictional response issues were present.

17 16 Definitions Active Shooter Active Shooter Suspect (s) activity is immediately causing death and serious bodily injury. The activity is not contained and there is immediate risk of death or serious injury to potential victims. Suspect (s) activity is immediately causing death and serious bodily injury. The activity is not contained and there is immediate risk of death or serious injury to potential victims. Immediate Deployment Immediate Deployment The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons. The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.

18 17 Definitions Dynamic Situation Dynamic Situation The situation is evolving very rapidly along with the suspect’s action. Example, shooting and moving. The situation is evolving very rapidly along with the suspect’s action. Example, shooting and moving. Static Situation Static Situation The situation is not evolving or in motion, it suspect actions appear to be contained. Example, suspect is barricaded in a room. The situation is not evolving or in motion, it suspect actions appear to be contained. Example, suspect is barricaded in a room.

19 18 Definitions Time Line of Violence Time Line of Violence The period of time from the suspects first violent action until his action is stopped or he/she transitions to another activity. The period of time from the suspects first violent action until his action is stopped or he/she transitions to another activity. Incident Transition Incident Transition That point in the incident where the “active shooter” stops his/her violent actions and tries to escape or barricades themselves. That point in the incident where the “active shooter” stops his/her violent actions and tries to escape or barricades themselves.

20 19 Definitions Barricade Suspect Suspect is in a position of advantage, usually barricaded in a room or building. Suspect is in a position of advantage, usually barricaded in a room or building. Suspect is armed and has displayed violence. Suspect is armed and has displayed violence. May or may not be holding a hostage (s) May or may not be holding a hostage (s) There is no indication that the suspect(s) activity is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury. The event is not dynamic but rather static. There is no indication that the suspect(s) activity is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury. The event is not dynamic but rather static.

21 20 A School and Police Partnership Work together to develop realistic school safety plans in response to various threats. Work together to develop realistic school safety plans in response to various threats. Conduct joint, school and police, training sessions to test procedures. Conduct joint, school and police, training sessions to test procedures. Conduct joint, school and police, field training exercises in a realistic environment with maximum sensory overload. Conduct joint, school and police, field training exercises in a realistic environment with maximum sensory overload.

22 21 Memorandum of Understanding Between the police and the schools Between the police and the schools Purpose Purpose To Establish procedures to be followed when an incident involving an act of violence or possession of a weapon occurs on school property. To Establish procedures to be followed when an incident involving an act of violence or possession of a weapon occurs on school property.

23 22 School Priorities During an “Active Shooter” Situation Protect the lives of children, teachers and staff. Protect the lives of children, teachers and staff. Have a crisis management team and detailed School Safety Plan Have a crisis management team and detailed School Safety Plan Implement an “Armed Intruder” procedure. Implement an “Armed Intruder” procedure. Notify police. Notify police. Provide follow-up counseling to children, teachers, and staff. Provide follow-up counseling to children, teachers, and staff.

24 23 School “Armed Intruder” Procedures What are school procedures when an “Active Shooter” starts his/her rampage? What are school procedures when an “Active Shooter” starts his/her rampage? Must address a variety of threats Must address a variety of threats Have mutually agreed upon procedures Have mutually agreed upon procedures There must be training and exercises. There must be training and exercises. Almost always have issues regarding school and police response. Almost always have issues regarding school and police response.

25 24 Lockdown or Evacuate?

26 School Lock Down Procedures Signal/code Signal/code Lock Doors Lock Doors Safe Area Safe Area Account for Students Account for Students Do Not Open Door Until Police Arrive Do Not Open Door Until Police Arrive Communicate Communicate

27 26 Rules of Thumb For Schools Call 911 and stay on the phone. Call 911 and stay on the phone. Isolate and evacuate as soon as possible. Isolate and evacuate as soon as possible. Collect as much information as possible. Collect as much information as possible. Don’t try to be a hero. Don’t try to be a hero. Allow police first responders to make contact. Allow police first responders to make contact.

28 27 Resolution of an “Active Shooter” Situation Most likely by patrol. Most likely by patrol. Non-traditional response. Non-traditional response. Minimum number of officers. Minimum number of officers. Properly equipped. Properly equipped. Properly trained. Properly trained. Able to transition to a barricade situation. Able to transition to a barricade situation.

29 28 Police Priorities During An “Active Shooter” Situations The capture or neutralization of the suspect, as soon as possible. The capture or neutralization of the suspect, as soon as possible. The lives of those in proximity of the shooter. The lives of those in proximity of the shooter. The lives and safety of citizens in the area. The lives and safety of citizens in the area. The safety of police officers. The safety of police officers. Containment. Containment. After event investigation and a return to normalcy. After event investigation and a return to normalcy.

30 29 LE Policy and Procedure for Response to Active Shooters Do we need a police response policy for “active shooter” situations? Do we need a police response policy for “active shooter” situations? Do we need procedures for “active shooter” situations? Do we need procedures for “active shooter” situations?

31 30 Police First Responder Tactics Position your patrol vehicle to act as cover with the best possible field of view. Position your patrol vehicle to act as cover with the best possible field of view. Use a target site numbering system consistent with department policy for points of reference. Use a target site numbering system consistent with department policy for points of reference. Collect and communicate assessment of situation clearly and concisely Collect and communicate assessment of situation clearly and concisely

32 DEPLOYMENT Target Site

33 Building - Side/Opening Designation... n Sides - Clockwise - starting with front as Side 1 n Levels - Bottom to top n Openings - left to right Side 1 - FRONT Side 2 Side 3 Side

34 33 First Responder Actions Tulsa Video Video #1, Part 2

35 34 Proper Equipment for Patrol Officers Weapons Weapons Shouldered fired weapon with light mounts, shotgun with slug or police rifle. Shouldered fired weapon with light mounts, shotgun with slug or police rifle. Protective Gear Protective Gear Ballistic helmet Ballistic helmet Ballistic shields Ballistic shields Mechanical Breaching Equipment Mechanical Breaching Equipment Halligan tool Halligan tool Sledge hammer Sledge hammer

36 35 Weapons Why a shoulder fired weapon? Why a shoulder fired weapon? Accurate weapons fire Accurate weapons fire Defeat body armor Defeat body armor Over penetration Over penetration Not an issue Not an issue

37 36 Protective Gear Ballistic Helmets Ballistic Helmets Ballistic Shields Ballistic Shields

38 37 Breaching Equipment Sledge hammer Sledge hammer Halligan tool Halligan tool Ram Ram

39 38 Off Duty-Plain Clothes Personnel Should be Clearly Identifiable as Police Officers Should be Clearly Identifiable as Police Officers Windbreaker, External Armor with placards, traffic vests, etc. Windbreaker, External Armor with placards, traffic vests, etc. Radio Communications available Radio Communications available

40 Police Response to Dynamic – Active Shooter Incident Quick Assessment Quick Assessment Communicate Assessment Communicate Assessment Quick Intervention Quick Intervention

41 40 Quick Assessment Obtain as much information as possible en-route the location. Obtain as much information as possible en-route the location. Suspect actions (static or dynamic), location, description, weapons Suspect actions (static or dynamic), location, description, weapons Victim injuries and location Victim injuries and location Request school official to meet you in the parking lot Request school official to meet you in the parking lot Upon arrival position yourself in the best possible location Upon arrival position yourself in the best possible location On side one, front of school On side one, front of school Determine if you have an active shooter or possible barricade situation Determine if you have an active shooter or possible barricade situation

42 41 Communications First responding officer becomes the ad-hoc incident commander until relieved by a supervisor. First responding officer becomes the ad-hoc incident commander until relieved by a supervisor. Collect information enroute and upon arrival at the location and communicate this information as quickly and concisely as possible to dispatch and responding units. Collect information enroute and upon arrival at the location and communicate this information as quickly and concisely as possible to dispatch and responding units.

43 42 Ad-hoc Incident Commander Responsibilities. Responsibilities. Collect information. Collect information. Direct responding units to a staging area. Direct responding units to a staging area. Assemble an entry-contact team and move to the shooter. Assemble an entry-contact team and move to the shooter. Remain outside the location to direct additional responding units. Remain outside the location to direct additional responding units. Transition command to a supervisor Transition command to a supervisor

44 43 Intervention If a barricade situation use the 4Cs If a barricade situation use the 4Cs Contain, Control, Communicate, Call SWAT. Contain, Control, Communicate, Call SWAT. If a dynamic, active shooter situation If a dynamic, active shooter situation Put together an entry-contact team made up of patrol officers and move to the shooter. Put together an entry-contact team made up of patrol officers and move to the shooter. Maintain an ad-hoc incident commander outside the location to gather additional information and direct additional responding personnel to location. Maintain an ad-hoc incident commander outside the location to gather additional information and direct additional responding personnel to location.

45 44 Immediate Deployment Tactics Patrol or SWAT Contact-Rescue Team Concept

46 45 Immediate Deployment Definition... The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons. The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.

47 46 When Utilized... Aggressive Deadly Behavior Aggressive Deadly Behavior Suspect(s) actively engaged in causing death or great bodily harm. Suspect(s) actively engaged in causing death or great bodily harm. e.g., “Active Shooter,” edged weapon assaults, explosives, etc. e.g., “Active Shooter,” edged weapon assaults, explosives, etc. And... The location is believed to contain multiple victims. e.g., schools, parks, playgrounds, sporting events, day care, high-rise structures etc. The location is believed to contain multiple victims. e.g., schools, parks, playgrounds, sporting events, day care, high-rise structures etc. Citizen/Officer Rescue Citizen/Officer Rescue Deadly assault(s) may or may not be on-going. Deadly assault(s) may or may not be on-going. Delayed law enforcement action could result in continued injury to citizens/officers. Delayed law enforcement action could result in continued injury to citizens/officers. Delayed recovery of victim(s) could result in victim(s)’ demise. Delayed recovery of victim(s) could result in victim(s)’ demise.

48 47 Immediate deployment tactics are not a substitute for conventional response to Barricaded Subjects. Immediate deployment tactics are not a substitute for conventional response to Barricaded Subjects.

49 48 Organization... Minimum - (3-4) Officers Minimum - (3-4) Officers 1. Team Leader Delegates team member responsibilities. Delegates team member responsibilities. Formulates and implements plan. Formulates and implements plan. 2. Assistant Team Leader Communicates with responding units. Communicates with responding units. Acts as additional Contact or Rescue Officer. Acts as additional Contact or Rescue Officer. 3. Designated Cover Officer (Point ) Armed with shotgun (Slug ammo if Dept. criteria is met). Armed with shotgun (Slug ammo if Dept. criteria is met). Police Rifle - if Dept. criteria is met. Police Rifle - if Dept. criteria is met. 4. Rear Guard

50 49 Deployment... Organize Contact/Rescue teams. Organize Contact/Rescue teams. Attempt diagonal deployment: Attempt diagonal deployment: Place containment teams in a position to cover the “Predictable Target Area” Place containment teams in a position to cover the “Predictable Target Area” Area that suspect can potentially move within Area that suspect can potentially move within Area where suspect may attempt to escape Area where suspect may attempt to escape Area where suspect has access to vehicles Area where suspect has access to vehicles Move to location and attempt to stop violence Move to location and attempt to stop violence Coordinate 360 degree containment with other responding units and SWAT Coordinate 360 degree containment with other responding units and SWAT When SWAT arrives - transition control When SWAT arrives - transition control

51 50 Contact Team Conduct Priority is to make CONTACT with the suspect(s). Priority is to make CONTACT with the suspect(s). Move with 360 degree coverage (point, flanks, rear). Move with 360 degree coverage (point, flanks, rear). Stop deadly behavior. Stop deadly behavior. Limit movement of suspect(s). Limit movement of suspect(s).

52 51 Contact Team Movement Four Person Diamond Formation Four Person Diamond Formation

53 52 Contact Team Prevent suspect escape. Prevent suspect escape. Continue past victim(s). Continue past victim(s). Continue past explosives. Continue past explosives. Communicate progress to other responders. Communicate progress to other responders.

54 53 Contact Team Provide preliminary assessment: Provide preliminary assessment: Victim(s)’ locations and medical needs. Victim(s)’ locations and medical needs. Prioritize if possible. Prioritize if possible. Explosives - type and location. Explosives - type and location. Suspect(s)’ description and location Suspect(s)’ description and location Types of weapons (if known). Types of weapons (if known).

55 54 Rescue Team Conduct Priority is RESCUE & RECOVERY of victim(s). Priority is RESCUE & RECOVERY of victim(s). Identify suspect(s) location if possible. Identify suspect(s) location if possible. Enter and/or approach location to locate victim(s). Enter and/or approach location to locate victim(s). Extract victim to a safe area and notify the Incident Commander. Extract victim to a safe area and notify the Incident Commander. Notify medical personnel if necessary. Notify medical personnel if necessary. When multiple victims are present... When multiple victims are present... Expand Rescue Team size as needed and emphasize: Expand Rescue Team size as needed and emphasize: Custody, Control and Accountability of victims Custody, Control and Accountability of victims Coordinate actions with the Contact Team Leader and other responding personnel. Coordinate actions with the Contact Team Leader and other responding personnel.

56 55 Victim Located... After locating victim, first officer steps over and provides cover. After locating victim, first officer steps over and provides cover. Cover danger areas. Cover danger areas. Secure victim and evacuate - communicate recovery to Incident Commander. Secure victim and evacuate - communicate recovery to Incident Commander.

57 56 Victim Located…

58 57 Contact Team Movement Video Clips Patrol officers in contact team formations Video # 3, Scenes 1-22

59 58 Contact/Rescue Team Movement From vehicles to the building From vehicles to the building Building entry Building entry Movement to contact Movement to contact Halls Halls Stairs Stairs Room entry and clearing Room entry and clearing Variety of configurations Variety of configurations Criss Cross Criss Cross Step in and button hook Step in and button hook

60 Contact Rescue Team Movement Hallways DCO – Designated Cover Officer (Point man) 2.L.C. – Left Cover 3.R.C. – Right Cover 4.R.G. – Right Guard

61 ROOM ENTRY – Closed Door Criss-Cross

62 ROOM ENTRY – Open or Closed Door Step In – Button Hook

63 Contact – Rescue Team Movement Past Open Doors

64 Movement & Room Clearing Variations

65 64 Considerations Losing contact with the suspect Losing contact with the suspect Suspect contact and apprehension Suspect contact and apprehension Evacuations Evacuations Use of deadly force Use of deadly force Suppressive Fire Suppressive Fire What to expect on entry What to expect on entry Encountering explosive devices Encountering explosive devices

66 65 Losing Contact What do you do when the shots and the screaming stops during your entry? What do you do when the shots and the screaming stops during your entry? Has the suspect committed suicide? Has the suspect committed suicide? Has he taken hostage and barricaded himself? Has he taken hostage and barricaded himself? Has he escaped. Has he escaped. Lock team down in room or area and listen, request updates and collect intel Lock team down in room or area and listen, request updates and collect intel

67 66 Suspect Contact and Apprehension Primary goal Primary goal Stop suspect’s deadly behavior Stop suspect’s deadly behavior Take suspect into custody Take suspect into custody Remain in a position of cover, bring suspect to you. Remain in a position of cover, bring suspect to you. Give clear and concise orders to suspect. Give clear and concise orders to suspect.

68 67 Evacuations Evacuations for an active shooter are not like a fire drill Evacuations for an active shooter are not like a fire drill Move to a safe distance behind cover Move to a safe distance behind cover Types of evacuations Types of evacuations Escorted Escorted Police accompany evacuees to safe area. Police accompany evacuees to safe area. Unescorted Unescorted Police direct evacuees to a safe area. Police direct evacuees to a safe area. When in doubt, have teachers and student secure themselves in a classroom until a police escort can be provided. When in doubt, have teachers and student secure themselves in a classroom until a police escort can be provided.

69 68 Use of Deadly Force... Based on IDOL (Immediate Defense Of Life). Based on IDOL (Immediate Defense Of Life). INDIVIDUAL OFFICER makes decision. INDIVIDUAL OFFICER makes decision. Does not require approval from higher authority. Does not require approval from higher authority. Utilized to stop the threat. Utilized to stop the threat. The law - “Objectively Reasonable.” The law - “Objectively Reasonable.” no exception to the l aw... or policy

70 69 Suppressive Fire... A worst-case scenario - should only be employed when other options are not REASONABLE. A worst-case scenario - should only be employed when other options are not REASONABLE. Directed at a “target specific” threat. Directed at a “target specific” threat. Always be cognizant of background Always be cognizant of background Utilized to stop or prevent deadly behavior caused by the suspect(s) when... Utilized to stop or prevent deadly behavior caused by the suspect(s) when... Entering an exposed area to gain a tactical advantage Entering an exposed area to gain a tactical advantage Entering an exposed area to affect a rescue/recovery Entering an exposed area to affect a rescue/recovery All personnel must be aware of intended deployment. All personnel must be aware of intended deployment.

71 70 What To Expect Upon Entry... Noise, confusion, screaming, alarms etc. Noise, confusion, screaming, alarms etc. Victims running, hiding, confused and frightened - not responding to law enforcement directions. Victims running, hiding, confused and frightened - not responding to law enforcement directions. Carnage. Carnage. Fire and sprinkler operations. Fire and sprinkler operations.

72 71 Encountering Explosives... Identify and report locations. Identify and report locations. Position an officer for protection. Position an officer for protection. Don’t move - don’t touch. Don’t move - don’t touch. Visually inspect for potential detonation. Visually inspect for potential detonation. Trip wires, timing device burning fuse etc. Trip wires, timing device burning fuse etc. Move past - continue to locate suspect(s) and/or victim(s). Move past - continue to locate suspect(s) and/or victim(s).

73 72 SWAT Arrival During an Active Shooter Situation Coordinate and relinquish responsibility as soon as possible. Coordinate and relinquish responsibility as soon as possible. Assist with containment responsibilities if necessary. Assist with containment responsibilities if necessary. Assist with rescue teams if necessary. Assist with rescue teams if necessary. Act as a “pathfinder” for responding SWAT personnel: Act as a “pathfinder” for responding SWAT personnel: Direct to last known location of suspect(s) Direct to last known location of suspect(s) Report location of explosives Report location of explosives Provide any additional pertinent information Provide any additional pertinent information Weaponry, suspect description, etc. Weaponry, suspect description, etc.

74 73 School and Police Response to Barricade Hostage Situations Handling The Transition of an Active Shooter Situation to a Barricade Situation

75 74 Incident Transition Issues Suspect driven Suspect driven Is the suspect’s actions causing immediate death or serious bodily injury? Is the suspect’s actions causing immediate death or serious bodily injury? Is he barricaded alone or does he have hostages? Is he barricaded alone or does he have hostages? Should there be First Responder negotiations with the suspect? Should there be First Responder negotiations with the suspect?

76 School Response to Barricade “Static” Events Isolate Suspect Isolate Suspect Communicate to Police Communicate to Police Start Evacuation Start Evacuation

77 Police Response To Barricade Event Contain Control Communicate Call SWAT (4 C’s)

78 77 Police Priorities Barricade Incident Lives of the Hostage (s) Lives of the Hostage (s) Lives of innocent bystanders Lives of innocent bystanders Lives of police officers Lives of police officers Lives of the suspect (s) Lives of the suspect (s)

79 Contemporary Tactics Using Negotiations and SWAT Have Successfully Resolved Over 95 % of Incidents Without Shots Being Fired

80 79 Negotiations and SWAT Response Negotiators will establish contact with the suspect as soon as possible. Negotiators will establish contact with the suspect as soon as possible. SWAT will begin to develop a tactical plan to resolve the situation if negotiations fail. SWAT will begin to develop a tactical plan to resolve the situation if negotiations fail.

81 SWAT Response To Barricade Incident Setup perimeters. Relieve patrol from the inner perimeter. Facilitate evacuations and isolate suspect to smallest area. Develop tactical options. Tactical resolution a final option only if negotiations fail.

82 81 Ongoing Issues Police must have access to schools and school plans. Police must have access to schools and school plans. Team approach, police and schools, developing school policy and procedures. Team approach, police and schools, developing school policy and procedures. Training all parties using realistic scenario based training. Training all parties using realistic scenario based training.

83 82 Post Course Activities Written Test Course Critiques Course Closeout

84 83 Always be prepared and never, never, give up!


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