2Instructor Introductions Introduce the Instructors and briefly discuss NTOA operations overview.
3Training Goals The student will be familiar with: Historical overview of active shooter situationsPolice lessons learned from school shootingsSchool “Armed Intruder” proceduresSchool priorities during an active shooter situationPolice priorities during an active shooter situationPolice equipment and training needsContact /rescue team tactics for immediate deployment.
4Course Administration Items Roster VerificationCourse CritiquesSafety BriefingPass around the roster and make sure everyone verifies their name, address and other information. Students should sign roster and return to the lead instructor.Pre and post test scores are recorded on the original roster.Verified roster is faxed to the NTOA at the end of the first day.
5Pre-testHave each student take out a piece of paper and record their answers. Instructor reads questions to expedite pre-test. Once all questions are completed have student exchange answer sheet with fellow student.Instructor reads answers, tests are scored and turned in. Pre test scores are recorded on the pass around roster.
6CBS Sixty Minutes Story What really happened at Columbine?
8Active Shooter Intro Video Video #1, part 1Instructor to show first couple of minutes of video from the Tulsa OK Hall Boss tape. Start to the end of the channel four news coverage.Optional, if school officials are present, show the Bibb County Student Weapon video produced by Garrett Metal detection. This video shows the young chief of police concealing a variety of weapons.
13North Hollywood Bank Robbery February 27, 1997North Hollywood, CASuspects, Larry Phillips and Emil MosuranyoWounded 13One suspect commits suicide the other is killed by SWAT
14Columbine High School Littleton CO April 20, 1999Littleton COSuspects Harris and KleboldKilled 13Wounded dozensBoth suspects commit suicide
15Lesson Learned Active shooter incidents are spontaneous. Suspects behavior unpredictable.Pre-incident signs existed in school incidents.Incidents occur in a target rich environment.First responders outgunned and/or didn’t have the training to respond to an active shooter situation.A tactical intervention was too late.Multi-jurisdictional response issues were present.
16Definitions Active Shooter Immediate Deployment Suspect (s) activity is immediately causing death and serious bodily injury. The activity is not contained and there is immediate risk of death or serious injury to potential victims.Immediate DeploymentThe swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.
17Definitions Dynamic Situation Static Situation The situation is evolving very rapidly along with the suspect’s action. Example, shooting and moving.Static SituationThe situation is not evolving or in motion, it suspect actions appear to be contained. Example, suspect is barricaded in a room.
18Definitions Time Line of Violence Incident Transition The period of time from the suspects first violent action until his action is stopped or he/she transitions to another activity.Incident TransitionThat point in the incident where the “active shooter” stops his/her violent actions and tries to escape or barricades themselves.
19Definitions Barricade Suspect Suspect is in a position of advantage, usually barricaded in a room or building.Suspect is armed and has displayed violence.May or may not be holding a hostage (s)There is no indication that the suspect(s) activity is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury. The event is not dynamic but rather static.
20A School and Police Partnership Work together to develop realistic school safety plans in response to various threats.Conduct joint, school and police, training sessions to test procedures.Conduct joint, school and police, field training exercises in a realistic environment with maximum sensory overload.
21Memorandum of Understanding Between the police and the schoolsPurposeTo Establish procedures to be followed when an incident involving an act of violence or possession of a weapon occurs on school property.
22School Priorities During an “Active Shooter” Situation Protect the lives of children, teachers and staff.Have a crisis management team and detailed School Safety PlanImplement an “Armed Intruder” procedure.Notify police.Provide follow-up counseling to children, teachers, and staff.
23School “Armed Intruder” Procedures What are school procedures when an “Active Shooter” starts his/her rampage?Must address a variety of threatsHave mutually agreed upon proceduresThere must be training and exercises.Almost always have issues regarding school and police response.
25School Lock Down Procedures Signal/codeLock DoorsSafe AreaAccount for StudentsDo Not Open Door Until Police ArriveCommunicate
26Rules of Thumb For Schools Call 911 and stay on the phone.Isolate and evacuate as soon as possible.Collect as much information as possible.Don’t try to be a hero.Allow police first responders to make contact.
27Resolution of an “Active Shooter” Situation Most likely by patrol.Non-traditional response.Minimum number of officers.Properly equipped.Properly trained.Able to transition to a barricade situation.
28Police Priorities During An “Active Shooter” Situations The capture or neutralization of the suspect, as soon as possible.The lives of those in proximity of the shooter.The lives and safety of citizens in the area.The safety of police officers.Containment.After event investigation and a return to normalcy.
29LE Policy and Procedure for Response to Active Shooters Do we need a police response policy for “active shooter” situations?Do we need procedures for “active shooter” situations?
30Police First Responder Tactics Position your patrol vehicle to act as cover with the best possible field of view.Use a target site numbering system consistent with department policy for points of reference.Collect and communicate assessment of situation clearly and concisely
40Quick AssessmentObtain as much information as possible en-route the location.Suspect actions (static or dynamic), location, description, weaponsVictim injuries and locationRequest school official to meet you in the parking lotUpon arrival position yourself in the best possible locationOn side one, front of schoolDetermine if you have an active shooter or possible barricade situation
41CommunicationsFirst responding officer becomes the ad-hoc incident commander until relieved by a supervisor.Collect information enroute and upon arrival at the location and communicate this information as quickly and concisely as possible to dispatch and responding units.
42Ad-hoc Incident Commander Responsibilities.Collect information.Direct responding units to a staging area.Assemble an entry-contact team and move to the shooter.Remain outside the location to direct additional responding units.Transition command to a supervisor
43Intervention If a barricade situation use the 4Cs Contain, Control, Communicate, Call SWAT.If a dynamic, active shooter situationPut together an entry-contact team made up of patrol officers and move to the shooter.Maintain an ad-hoc incident commander outside the location to gather additional information and direct additional responding personnel to location.
44Immediate Deployment Tactics Patrol or SWAT Contact-Rescue TeamConcept
45Immediate Deployment Definition . . . The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.
46When Utilized . . . Aggressive Deadly Behavior And . . . Suspect(s) actively engaged in causing death or great bodily harm.e.g., “Active Shooter,” edged weapon assaults, explosives, etc.And . . .The location is believed to contain multiple victims. e.g., schools, parks, playgrounds, sporting events, day care, high-rise structures etc.Citizen/Officer RescueDeadly assault(s) may or may not be on-going.Delayed law enforcement action could result in continued injury to citizens/officers.Delayed recovery of victim(s) could result in victim(s)’ demise.
47Immediate deployment tactics are not a substitute for conventional response to Barricaded Subjects.
48Organization . . . Minimum - (3-4) Officers 1. Team Leader Delegates team member responsibilities.Formulates and implements plan.2. Assistant Team LeaderCommunicates with responding units.Acts as additional Contact or Rescue Officer.3. Designated Cover Officer (Point )Armed with shotgun (Slug ammo if Dept. criteria is met).Police Rifle - if Dept. criteria is met.4. Rear Guard
49Deployment . . . Organize Contact/Rescue teams. Attempt diagonal deployment:Place containment teams in a position to cover the “Predictable Target Area”Area that suspect can potentially move withinArea where suspect may attempt to escapeArea where suspect has access to vehiclesMove to location and attempt to stop violenceCoordinate 360 degree containment with other responding units and SWATWhen SWAT arrives - transition control
50Contact Team Conduct Priority is to make CONTACT with the suspect(s). Move with 360 degree coverage (point, flanks, rear).Stop deadly behavior.Limit movement of suspect(s).
51Contact Team MovementFour Person Diamond Formation
52Contact Team Prevent suspect escape. Continue past victim(s). Continue past explosives.Communicate progress to other responders.
53Contact Team Provide preliminary assessment: Victim(s)’ locations and medical needs.Prioritize if possible.Explosives - type and location.Suspect(s)’ description and locationTypes of weapons (if known).
54Rescue Team Conduct Priority is RESCUE & RECOVERY of victim(s). Identify suspect(s) location if possible.Enter and/or approach location to locate victim(s).Extract victim to a safe area and notify the Incident Commander.Notify medical personnel if necessary.When multiple victims are present . . .Expand Rescue Team size as needed and emphasize:Custody, Control and Accountability of victimsCoordinate actions with the Contact Team Leader and other responding personnel.
55Victim Located . . .After locating victim, first officer steps over and provides cover.Cover danger areas.Secure victim and evacuate - communicate recovery to Incident Commander.
64Considerations Losing contact with the suspect Suspect contact and apprehensionEvacuationsUse of deadly forceSuppressive FireWhat to expect on entryEncountering explosive devices
65Losing ContactWhat do you do when the shots and the screaming stops during your entry?Has the suspect committed suicide?Has he taken hostage and barricaded himself?Has he escaped.Lock team down in room or area and listen, request updates and collect intel
66Suspect Contact and Apprehension Primary goalStop suspect’s deadly behaviorTake suspect into custodyRemain in a position of cover, bring suspect to you.Give clear and concise orders to suspect.
67EvacuationsEvacuations for an active shooter are not like a fire drillMove to a safe distance behind coverTypes of evacuationsEscortedPolice accompany evacuees to safe area.UnescortedPolice direct evacuees to a safe area.When in doubt, have teachers and student secure themselves in a classroom until a police escort can be provided.
68Use of Deadly Force . . . no exception to the law . . . or policy Based on IDOL (Immediate Defense Of Life).INDIVIDUAL OFFICER makes decision.Does not require approval from higher authority.Utilized to stop the threat.The law - “Objectively Reasonable.”no exception tothe law or policy
69Suppressive Fire . . .A worst-case scenario - should only be employed when other options are not REASONABLE.Directed at a “target specific” threat.Always be cognizant of backgroundUtilized to stop or prevent deadly behavior caused by the suspect(s) when . . .Entering an exposed area to gain a tactical advantageEntering an exposed area to affect a rescue/recoveryAll personnel must be aware of intended deployment.
70What To Expect Upon Entry . . . Noise, confusion, screaming, alarms etc.Victims running, hiding, confused and frightened - not responding to law enforcement directions.Carnage.Fire and sprinkler operations.
71Encountering Explosives . . . Identify and report locations.Position an officer for protection.Don’t move - don’t touch.Visually inspect for potential detonation.Trip wires, timing device burning fuse etc.Move past - continue to locate suspect(s) and/or victim(s).
72SWAT Arrival During an Active Shooter Situation Coordinate and relinquish responsibility as soon as possible.Assist with containment responsibilities if necessary.Assist with rescue teams if necessary.Act as a “pathfinder” for responding SWAT personnel:Direct to last known location of suspect(s)Report location of explosivesProvide any additional pertinent informationWeaponry, suspect description, etc.
73School and Police Response to Barricade Hostage Situations Handling The Transition of an Active Shooter Situation to a Barricade Situation
74Incident Transition Issues Suspect drivenIs the suspect’s actions causing immediate death or serious bodily injury?Is he barricaded alone or does he have hostages?Should there be First Responder negotiations with the suspect?
75School Response to Barricade “Static” Events Isolate SuspectCommunicate to PoliceStart Evacuation
76Police Response To Barricade Event ContainControlCommunicateCall SWAT(4 C’s)
77Police Priorities Barricade Incident Lives of the Hostage (s)Lives of innocent bystandersLives of police officersLives of the suspect (s)
78Contemporary Tactics Using Negotiations and SWAT Have Successfully Resolved Over 95 % of Incidents Without Shots Being Fired
79Negotiations and SWAT Response Negotiators will establish contact with the suspect as soon as possible.SWAT will begin to develop a tactical plan to resolve the situation if negotiations fail.
80SWAT Response To Barricade Incident Setup perimeters. Relieve patrol from the inner perimeter.Facilitate evacuations and isolate suspect to smallest area.Develop tactical options.Tactical resolution a final option only if negotiations fail.
81Ongoing Issues Police must have access to schools and school plans. Team approach, police and schools, developing school policy and procedures.Training all parties using realistic scenario based training.
82Post Course Activities Written TestCourse CritiquesCourse Closeout