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Presentation on theme: "RESPONSE TO ACTIVE SHOOTERS"— Presentation transcript:


2 Instructor Introductions
Introduce the Instructors and briefly discuss NTOA operations overview.

3 Training Goals The student will be familiar with:
Historical overview of active shooter situations Police lessons learned from school shootings School “Armed Intruder” procedures School priorities during an active shooter situation Police priorities during an active shooter situation Police equipment and training needs Contact /rescue team tactics for immediate deployment.

4 Course Administration Items
Roster Verification Course Critiques Safety Briefing Pass around the roster and make sure everyone verifies their name, address and other information. Students should sign roster and return to the lead instructor. Pre and post test scores are recorded on the original roster. Verified roster is faxed to the NTOA at the end of the first day.

5 Pre-test Have each student take out a piece of paper and record their answers. Instructor reads questions to expedite pre-test. Once all questions are completed have student exchange answer sheet with fellow student. Instructor reads answers, tests are scored and turned in. Pre test scores are recorded on the pass around roster.

6 CBS Sixty Minutes Story
What really happened at Columbine?


8 Active Shooter Intro Video
Video #1, part 1 Instructor to show first couple of minutes of video from the Tulsa OK Hall Boss tape. Start to the end of the channel four news coverage. Optional, if school officials are present, show the Bibb County Student Weapon video produced by Garrett Metal detection. This video shows the young chief of police concealing a variety of weapons.

9 Familiar?

10 Texas Tower Incident August 1, 1966 Austin TX Suspect, Charles Whitman
Killed 15 people (including an unborn baby) Wounded 31 (as far away as two blocks) Resolved by two police officers

11 Other Active Shooter Incidents
McDonald’s Massacre North Hollywood Bank Robbery Columbine High School, Littleton, CO April 20, 1999 Columbine HS, Littleton CO April 16, 1999 Notus, ID May 21, 1998 Springfield OR May 19, 1998 Fayetteville, TN April 24, 1998 Edinboro, PA March 24, 1998 Jonesboro, AK December 1, 1997 Paducah, KY October 1, 1997 Pearl MI

12 McDonald’s Restaurant
McDonald’s Massacre July 18, 1984 San Ysidro, CA Suspect, James Huberty, Killed 21 Wounded 11 Killed by Sniper San Ysidro California McDonald’s Restaurant July 18, 1984 James Huberty 21- persons killed

13 North Hollywood Bank Robbery
February 27, 1997 North Hollywood, CA Suspects, Larry Phillips and Emil Mosuranyo Wounded 13 One suspect commits suicide the other is killed by SWAT

14 Columbine High School Littleton CO
April 20, 1999 Littleton CO Suspects Harris and Klebold Killed 13 Wounded dozens Both suspects commit suicide

15 Lesson Learned Active shooter incidents are spontaneous.
Suspects behavior unpredictable. Pre-incident signs existed in school incidents. Incidents occur in a target rich environment. First responders outgunned and/or didn’t have the training to respond to an active shooter situation. A tactical intervention was too late. Multi-jurisdictional response issues were present.

16 Definitions Active Shooter Immediate Deployment
Suspect (s) activity is immediately causing death and serious bodily injury. The activity is not contained and there is immediate risk of death or serious injury to potential victims. Immediate Deployment The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.

17 Definitions Dynamic Situation Static Situation
The situation is evolving very rapidly along with the suspect’s action. Example, shooting and moving. Static Situation The situation is not evolving or in motion, it suspect actions appear to be contained. Example, suspect is barricaded in a room.

18 Definitions Time Line of Violence Incident Transition
The period of time from the suspects first violent action until his action is stopped or he/she transitions to another activity. Incident Transition That point in the incident where the “active shooter” stops his/her violent actions and tries to escape or barricades themselves.

19 Definitions Barricade Suspect
Suspect is in a position of advantage, usually barricaded in a room or building. Suspect is armed and has displayed violence. May or may not be holding a hostage (s) There is no indication that the suspect(s) activity is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury. The event is not dynamic but rather static.

20 A School and Police Partnership
Work together to develop realistic school safety plans in response to various threats. Conduct joint, school and police, training sessions to test procedures. Conduct joint, school and police, field training exercises in a realistic environment with maximum sensory overload.

21 Memorandum of Understanding
Between the police and the schools Purpose To Establish procedures to be followed when an incident involving an act of violence or possession of a weapon occurs on school property.

22 School Priorities During an “Active Shooter” Situation
Protect the lives of children, teachers and staff. Have a crisis management team and detailed School Safety Plan Implement an “Armed Intruder” procedure. Notify police. Provide follow-up counseling to children, teachers, and staff.

23 School “Armed Intruder” Procedures
What are school procedures when an “Active Shooter” starts his/her rampage? Must address a variety of threats Have mutually agreed upon procedures There must be training and exercises. Almost always have issues regarding school and police response.

24 Lockdown or Evacuate?

25 School Lock Down Procedures
Signal/code Lock Doors Safe Area Account for Students Do Not Open Door Until Police Arrive Communicate

26 Rules of Thumb For Schools
Call 911 and stay on the phone. Isolate and evacuate as soon as possible. Collect as much information as possible. Don’t try to be a hero. Allow police first responders to make contact.

27 Resolution of an “Active Shooter” Situation
Most likely by patrol. Non-traditional response. Minimum number of officers. Properly equipped. Properly trained. Able to transition to a barricade situation.

28 Police Priorities During An “Active Shooter” Situations
The capture or neutralization of the suspect, as soon as possible. The lives of those in proximity of the shooter. The lives and safety of citizens in the area. The safety of police officers. Containment. After event investigation and a return to normalcy.

29 LE Policy and Procedure for Response to Active Shooters
Do we need a police response policy for “active shooter” situations? Do we need procedures for “active shooter” situations?

30 Police First Responder Tactics
Position your patrol vehicle to act as cover with the best possible field of view. Use a target site numbering system consistent with department policy for points of reference. Collect and communicate assessment of situation clearly and concisely

31 DEPLOYMENT 3 2 Target Site 4 1

32 Building - Side/Opening Designation . . .
2 1 1 5 4 1 3 2 1 2 Side 2 Side 1 - FRONT Sides - Clockwise - starting with front as Side 1 Levels - Bottom to top Openings - left to right

33 First Responder Actions
Tulsa Video Video #1, Part 2

34 Proper Equipment for Patrol Officers
Weapons Shouldered fired weapon with light mounts, shotgun with slug or police rifle. Protective Gear Ballistic helmet Ballistic shields Mechanical Breaching Equipment Halligan tool Sledge hammer

35 Weapons Why a shoulder fired weapon? Over penetration
Accurate weapons fire Defeat body armor Over penetration Not an issue

36 Protective Gear Ballistic Helmets Ballistic Shields

37 Breaching Equipment Sledge hammer Halligan tool Ram

38 Off Duty-Plain Clothes Personnel
Should be Clearly Identifiable as Police Officers Windbreaker, External Armor with placards, traffic vests, etc. Radio Communications available

39 Police Response to Dynamic –Active Shooter Incident
Quick Assessment Communicate Assessment Quick Intervention

40 Quick Assessment Obtain as much information as possible en-route the location. Suspect actions (static or dynamic), location, description, weapons Victim injuries and location Request school official to meet you in the parking lot Upon arrival position yourself in the best possible location On side one, front of school Determine if you have an active shooter or possible barricade situation

41 Communications First responding officer becomes the ad-hoc incident commander until relieved by a supervisor. Collect information enroute and upon arrival at the location and communicate this information as quickly and concisely as possible to dispatch and responding units.

42 Ad-hoc Incident Commander
Responsibilities. Collect information. Direct responding units to a staging area. Assemble an entry-contact team and move to the shooter. Remain outside the location to direct additional responding units. Transition command to a supervisor

43 Intervention If a barricade situation use the 4Cs
Contain, Control, Communicate, Call SWAT. If a dynamic, active shooter situation Put together an entry-contact team made up of patrol officers and move to the shooter. Maintain an ad-hoc incident commander outside the location to gather additional information and direct additional responding personnel to location.

44 Immediate Deployment Tactics Patrol or SWAT
Contact-Rescue Team Concept

45 Immediate Deployment Definition . . .
The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to on-going, life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.

46 When Utilized . . . Aggressive Deadly Behavior And . . .
Suspect(s) actively engaged in causing death or great bodily harm. e.g., “Active Shooter,” edged weapon assaults, explosives, etc. And . . . The location is believed to contain multiple victims. e.g., schools, parks, playgrounds, sporting events, day care, high-rise structures etc. Citizen/Officer Rescue Deadly assault(s) may or may not be on-going. Delayed law enforcement action could result in continued injury to citizens/officers. Delayed recovery of victim(s) could result in victim(s)’ demise.

47 Immediate deployment tactics are not a substitute for conventional response to Barricaded Subjects.

48 Organization . . . Minimum - (3-4) Officers 1. Team Leader
Delegates team member responsibilities. Formulates and implements plan. 2. Assistant Team Leader Communicates with responding units. Acts as additional Contact or Rescue Officer. 3. Designated Cover Officer (Point ) Armed with shotgun (Slug ammo if Dept. criteria is met). Police Rifle - if Dept. criteria is met. 4. Rear Guard

49 Deployment . . . Organize Contact/Rescue teams.
Attempt diagonal deployment: Place containment teams in a position to cover the “Predictable Target Area” Area that suspect can potentially move within Area where suspect may attempt to escape Area where suspect has access to vehicles Move to location and attempt to stop violence Coordinate 360 degree containment with other responding units and SWAT When SWAT arrives - transition control

50 Contact Team Conduct Priority is to make CONTACT with the suspect(s).
Move with 360 degree coverage (point, flanks, rear). Stop deadly behavior. Limit movement of suspect(s).

51 Contact Team Movement Four Person Diamond Formation

52 Contact Team Prevent suspect escape. Continue past victim(s).
Continue past explosives. Communicate progress to other responders.

53 Contact Team Provide preliminary assessment:
Victim(s)’ locations and medical needs. Prioritize if possible. Explosives - type and location. Suspect(s)’ description and location Types of weapons (if known).

54 Rescue Team Conduct Priority is RESCUE & RECOVERY of victim(s).
Identify suspect(s) location if possible. Enter and/or approach location to locate victim(s). Extract victim to a safe area and notify the Incident Commander. Notify medical personnel if necessary. When multiple victims are present . . . Expand Rescue Team size as needed and emphasize: Custody, Control and Accountability of victims Coordinate actions with the Contact Team Leader and other responding personnel.

55 Victim Located . . . After locating victim, first officer steps over and provides cover. Cover danger areas. Secure victim and evacuate - communicate recovery to Incident Commander.

56 Victim Located…

57 Contact Team Movement Video Clips
Patrol officers in contact team formations Video # 3, Scenes 1-22

58 Contact/Rescue Team Movement
From vehicles to the building Building entry Movement to contact Halls Stairs Room entry and clearing Variety of configurations Criss Cross Step in and button hook

59 Contact Rescue Team Movement
Hallways 4 1 3 2 DCO – Designated Cover Officer (Point man) L.C. – Left Cover R.C. – Right Cover R.G. – Right Guard

60 ROOM ENTRY – Closed Door
Criss-Cross 2 4 1 4 3 1 3 2 2 3

61 ROOM ENTRY – Open or Closed Door
Step In – Button Hook 3 2 3 2 4 1 3 2 4 1 3 2 3 2

62 Contact – Rescue Team Movement
Past Open Doors 2 2 4 1 4 1 3 3

63 Movement & Room Clearing Variations
2 4 1 3

64 Considerations Losing contact with the suspect
Suspect contact and apprehension Evacuations Use of deadly force Suppressive Fire What to expect on entry Encountering explosive devices

65 Losing Contact What do you do when the shots and the screaming stops during your entry? Has the suspect committed suicide? Has he taken hostage and barricaded himself? Has he escaped. Lock team down in room or area and listen, request updates and collect intel

66 Suspect Contact and Apprehension
Primary goal Stop suspect’s deadly behavior Take suspect into custody Remain in a position of cover, bring suspect to you. Give clear and concise orders to suspect.

67 Evacuations Evacuations for an active shooter are not like a fire drill Move to a safe distance behind cover Types of evacuations Escorted Police accompany evacuees to safe area. Unescorted Police direct evacuees to a safe area. When in doubt, have teachers and student secure themselves in a classroom until a police escort can be provided.

68 Use of Deadly Force . . . no exception to the law . . . or policy
Based on IDOL (Immediate Defense Of Life). INDIVIDUAL OFFICER makes decision. Does not require approval from higher authority. Utilized to stop the threat. The law - “Objectively Reasonable.” no exception to the law or policy

69 Suppressive Fire . . . A worst-case scenario - should only be employed when other options are not REASONABLE. Directed at a “target specific” threat. Always be cognizant of background Utilized to stop or prevent deadly behavior caused by the suspect(s) when . . . Entering an exposed area to gain a tactical advantage Entering an exposed area to affect a rescue/recovery All personnel must be aware of intended deployment.

70 What To Expect Upon Entry . . .
Noise, confusion, screaming, alarms etc. Victims running, hiding, confused and frightened - not responding to law enforcement directions. Carnage. Fire and sprinkler operations.

71 Encountering Explosives . . .
Identify and report locations. Position an officer for protection. Don’t move - don’t touch. Visually inspect for potential detonation. Trip wires, timing device burning fuse etc. Move past - continue to locate suspect(s) and/or victim(s).

72 SWAT Arrival During an Active Shooter Situation
Coordinate and relinquish responsibility as soon as possible. Assist with containment responsibilities if necessary. Assist with rescue teams if necessary. Act as a “pathfinder” for responding SWAT personnel: Direct to last known location of suspect(s) Report location of explosives Provide any additional pertinent information Weaponry, suspect description, etc.

73 School and Police Response to Barricade Hostage Situations
Handling The Transition of an Active Shooter Situation to a Barricade Situation

74 Incident Transition Issues
Suspect driven Is the suspect’s actions causing immediate death or serious bodily injury? Is he barricaded alone or does he have hostages? Should there be First Responder negotiations with the suspect?

75 School Response to Barricade “Static” Events
Isolate Suspect Communicate to Police Start Evacuation

76 Police Response To Barricade Event
Contain Control Communicate Call SWAT (4 C’s)

77 Police Priorities Barricade Incident
Lives of the Hostage (s) Lives of innocent bystanders Lives of police officers Lives of the suspect (s)

78 Contemporary Tactics Using Negotiations and SWAT Have Successfully Resolved Over 95 % of Incidents Without Shots Being Fired

79 Negotiations and SWAT Response
Negotiators will establish contact with the suspect as soon as possible. SWAT will begin to develop a tactical plan to resolve the situation if negotiations fail.

80 SWAT Response To Barricade Incident
Setup perimeters. Relieve patrol from the inner perimeter. Facilitate evacuations and isolate suspect to smallest area. Develop tactical options. Tactical resolution a final option only if negotiations fail.

81 Ongoing Issues Police must have access to schools and school plans.
Team approach, police and schools, developing school policy and procedures. Training all parties using realistic scenario based training.

82 Post Course Activities
Written Test Course Critiques Course Closeout

83 Always be prepared and never, never, give up!


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