4Awareness Level Actions Course TitleIncident PhasesNotification PhaseIncident RecognizedResponse PhaseScene Control BeginsRecovery PhaseLast Living Victim RemovedRestoration PhaseContamination Survey CompletedAwareness Level Actions
59-1-1 Center L.A. County Fire Department Course TitleNotification PhaseBegins with recognition that an incident has or is about to occurEnds with the initiation of incident management procedures9-1-1 Center L.A. County Fire Department
6Notification Phase Actions Ensure responders operate from a safe distance.Ensure all “awareness-level” actions have been properly implemented.Gather critical information on incident and communicate.Ensure safe incident management activities have been implemented.Law enforcement could be involved in the identification and arrest of criminal suspects.
7FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Team at World Trade Center Course TitleResponse PhaseBegins with incident management.Ends with removal of the last living victims from the hazard area.Challenges:Site securityVictim rescueAgent identificationEmergency decontamination of peopleEvidence preservationMultiple devicesFEMA Urban Search and Rescue Team at World Trade Center
9Response Phase Actions (continued) First aidFirst aid to decontaminated victimsTriage, Treatment, Transport (T3)Assist HazMat team with technical decontaminationDefensive controlMultiple devices and perpetratorsEvidence preservationTechnical Decontaminationwww. ftmeade.army.mil
10Recovery PhaseBegins when the scene is stabilized, and the last living victim is transported to a medical facility.Ends with completion of the contamination survey.Challenges:Link up with state and federal authoritiesEvidence collectionRe-establishment of essential servicesDecontamination of essential equipment
11Restoration Phase Begins with completion of the contamination survey. Ends with complete hazard remediation.Emphasis on elimination of contamination and site restoration.
12Recovery/Restoration Phase Actions Within PPE limitations:Support/operate the decontamination requirements.Support/operate the equipment decontamination site.Provide medical support.Post-incident medical assessment and follow-up.Continue scene control.
13CBRNE Incident Response versus Day-to-Day Response Situation may not be recognizable until multiple casualties.Possible multiple events.Responders at higher risk of becoming casualties.The location of the incident is treated as crime scene.Contamination of critical facilities and large geographic areasScope of incident may expand.
14CBRNE Incident Response versus Day-to-Day Response (continued) Stronger reaction from public. (“Do Something!”).Time becomes a factor.Critical infrastructure becomes a target.Specialized state and local response capabilities can become overwhelmed.
15Collecting Evidence at a Crime Scene Defining a Crime SceneCrime is an act committed in violation of law.Laws punishing criminal conduct highlight the elements needed for conviction.The elements are the various parts a prosecutor needs for conviction.Collecting Evidence at a Crime SceneCourtesy of CDP
16Common Elements of a Crime Actus reus—guilty actMens rea—mental state; what is your intention?Concurrence—agreement in opinion; the act and intent meeting as oneCausation—process of causing; the act of causing something to happen
17Defining a WMD Crime Scene ChemicalBiologicalRadiologicalNuclearExplosiveOklahoma City Bombing
18Crime Scene Recognition First officer on scene has responsibility of protecting any potential evidence.Investigation depends on the ability to properly identify, isolate, and secure the scene.
19Evidence Preservation and Collection Actions and observations are very importan.tEverything is potential evidence.Communicate observations of evidence to other responders and to incident command.Record observations and actions as soon as possible.Victims can provide critical evidence.
20Initial Response to Scene The first-arriving responder should:Note prearrival information (time, date, address, etc.)Be aware of any persons or vehicles leaving crime sceneNote possible secondary crime scenesMake initial observations (look, listen, smell)Treat the crime as ongoing until told otherwiseDocument all observations
21Crime Scene Considerations Golden Rule: Leave it alone unless it is absolutely necessary for the performance of duties with law enforcement approval.Second Rule: Do the job using the fewest number of personnel.
22Conclusion Identify the phases of response. Recognize a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, or Explosive (CBRNE) crime scene and the characteristics associated with its environment.