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Critical Incident First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics.

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Presentation on theme: "Critical Incident First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Critical Incident First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics

2 Critical Incident First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Never Forget Your Safety Comes First

3 Critical Incident First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Definitions

4 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Crisis Situation: Any incident in which a person present on the scene has threatened to cause immediate harm to himself or others. This usually involves barricading or refusal to leave a location and / or hostage taking. Hostage Situation: A crisis situation in which a person is held against their will to force fulfillment of demands.

5 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Hostage Situation : A crisis situation in which a person is held against their will to force fulfillment of demands. Usually Involves: Threat to harm a person if demands are not met.

6 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Hostage Situation continued: Usually Involves:  Primary Goal  Having demands met  Gaining some type of advantage

7 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Defensive Threat: Usually employed in non- hostage situations Threats are primarily to prevent police action “If you come in here I’ll hurt Joe!

8 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics First Responders Duties: Contain the threat. Isolate the threat. Engage the person in conversation

9 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Containment and Isolation accomplish: Prevents the spread of the threat. Prevents the escape of the subject Prevents unauthorized persons to enter the crisis site. Applies pressure on the subject by isolating him from the outside world.

10 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Containing the subject to one specific location accomplishes: Seals off the location or house from outside influence Disables or removes any means of escape for the person

11 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Quick Assessment: What type of situation exists? Have hostages been taken? What type of weapons are involved?

12 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Request Additional resources: Supervisor Back up officers. Ambulance Fire apparatus. SWAT CNT

13 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Evacuation considerations: Persons in close proximity of the crisis incident Close off streets or neighborhoods if necessary Vehicular & pedestrian traffic should be controlled. Establish an outer perimeter a safe distance from the site.

14 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Working through the crisis: Most dangerous time:  First few minutes of crisis.  Last few minutes during surrender.  Subject is usually very unstable and irrational

15 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Most dangerous time continued:  Innocent police activity may be viewed as threatening.  Negotiating may NOT be an option due to person’s condition  Use caution in attempting to contact the person.

16 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Recommended Techniques: Circumstances may require the first responder to establish contact with the subject  He may call you  Hostage may call you  3 rd party contact (prior)

17 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Using Non-threatening non- judgmental language will: Promote Rational Thinking Allow for arrival of additional resources Can aid in intelligence gathering

18 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Negotiations Protocol Introduce yourself by name Exclude rank Identify the agency you work for Advise subject you are there to help Show concern for the subject Ask if he/she is O.K. Reassure him no one will come in / rush him

19 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Negotiations Protocol If hostages have been taken: Don’t call them hostages Talk of them as people Ask about their condition Ask their names Calling them by name will make the subject think of them as people not objects

20 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Negotiations Protocol Ask the subject what happened? Let the subject talk When he / she talks, they vent anger and frustration You gain intelligence

21 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Be a good listener and reassure the subject Speak in a calm voice at all times Do not get into a shouting match Do not debate with the subject Avoid setting deadlines Talk through any he sets Contact him prior to deadline or time of action & talk past it

22 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Statements that are vague or indicate finality: Could mean he / she is thinking about suicide It is O.K. to ask him / her if he / she is thinking about suicide

23 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Opening Exchange: “Hello my name is….. And I work for the Racine Police Department. I’m here to help you.” “What is your name or what name can I call you?” ”Are you O.K.” Are the people in there with you, O.K.”

24 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Allow the subject to talk: “Can you tell me what happened?” A lot of incidents are emotionally driven Try to identify which emotion he subject is feeling

25 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Anger Frustration Fear Sadness Depression

26 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics After the subject tells his story: Encourage further conversation by labeling the emotion: “Jim, it sounds like you are very angry about …. The subject will either confirm or correct you

27 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Tips for Safe First Responder Interaction: Your safety comes first Do not negotiate face to face with potentially armed subjects Never exchange yourself for anyone else Do not allow non-police personnel to negotiate

28 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Plan Surrenders carefully This may mean the subject is planning an action that will force a suicide by Cop

29 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics As a first responder you can: Gather intelligence for SWAT & CNT # of subjects Type of weapons # of hostages

30 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics As a first responder you can: Gather intelligence continued: Location of hostages Evaluate subjects state of mind

31 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics As a first responder you can: Stall for time: Time saves lives (Usually) Allows SWAT / CNT to get into place Has calming effect on everyone Don’t agree to anything (need boss' approval) Create Diversions Keep subject talking Keep subject in problem solving mode

32 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics You can provide Real Time Intelligence to SWAT /CNT Where is the subject NOW? Where are the hostages NOW? His / Her state of mind NOW?

33 Critical Incident First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics Don’t Forget our goal is to SAVE LIVES

34 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics This information was provided by

35 First Responder Responsibilities & Tactics The Critical Incident First Responder Talk Tactics Guide is available from IAHN. Go to The negotiator store at


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