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Tom Sienkewicz Monmouth College ACL

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1 Tom Sienkewicz Monmouth College ACL

2 Who Fought in the Arena? Those condemned to death – the forced (damnati) Condemned criminals of the lower orders(damnati ad mortem) prisoners of war army deserters Those who might hope to survive – volunteers (auctoritati) – slaves sold to gladiatorial trainers (e.g., Spartacus) – of lower orders guilty of lesser crimes (in ludum damnati) Ave, Imperator. Mortituri te salutant. Hail, Caesar. Those who are about to die salute you.

3 Questions about the Private Lives of Gladiators? What do their names tell us? Where did they live? How long did they live? Did they have wives? Did they have children?

4 Gladiatorial Ludi (Schools)

5 The Ludus Magnus

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9 Forma Urbis Romae IX,4 (Severan Marble Plan

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20 Pompeii

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25 “House of the Gladiator”

26 A Gladiator’s House in Pompeii? CIL IV.4420 = fought once won (corona) once SAMUS M(yrmillo) IDEM EQ(ues) Hic HAB(itat)

27 Some Gladiatorial Vocabulary Words marked in bold are important in inscriptions tīrō, -ōnis m.: a gladiatorial recruit veterānus,- ī m.:gladiator who had fought at least once lanista, -ae m.:a gladiatorial trainer, manager of a troop of gladiators armātūra, ae f.:armament, gladiatorial equipment Myrmillo, - ōnis m.: heavily-armed footman with a fish on his helmets (see more below) Samnīs, -ītis m.: heavily-armed footman (see more below) secūtor, -ōris m.:heavily-armed footman Thraex, Thrācis m.: light-armed footman bearing a shield and reversed sickle (see morebelow) rētiārius, -iī m.: unhelmeted footman armed with only tunic, net, trident and dagger (see more below) essedarius, -iī m.: chariot fighter familia, -ae f.:a troop of gladiators ludus, -ī m.: a place of residence and training of gladiators ludia, -ae f.female gladiator; women associated with gladiators; "a female slave attached a gladiatorial ludus" (OLD) ēditor,-ōris m.:sponsor of the games who would contract with a lūdus for a troop of gladiators to perform”. Also called ēditor muneris or dominus prōcūrātor, -ōris m. imperial magistrate in charge of the games missio, -iōnis f. permission given to gladiators to stop fighting in the arena. The same word was used for a military discharge. palma, -ae f. palm given to a victorious gladiator rudis, rudis f. wooden sword or staff given to a gladiator retiring permanently from action vēnātiō, -ōnis f. animal hunt in the arena vēnātor, -ōris m.animal hunter in the arena

28 Images for Identifying Gladiator Types Rētiārius, -iī m. Netter. This fighter was protected only with a shoulder guard (on left side only). For attacking, he carried a trident and a net and was often pitted against a Samnite or a Mirmillo. Thrāx, Thrācis n. Thracian. A fighter with lighter armor, including a helmet and greaves on both legs. With a bare torso and an arm guard (manica, -ae f. ) on his right arm, he carried a small shield (parmula, -ae f.) in in one hand and a short sword (sīca, -ae f. ) in the other.

29 Female Gladiators Fēminae Gladiātōrēs ΑΠΕΛΥΘΗΣΑΝ ΑΜΑΖΝ ΑΧIΛΛIΑ Amazon and Achillia were granted a reprieve. CIG 6855: A relief with an inscription. From Halicarnassus. Now in the British Museum. CIG = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecoaum

30 Gladiators in Epigraphy A Few Useful Epigraphic Abbreviations D.M. = Dis Manibus, “to the blessed soul” B.M. = bene merenti, “to the well-deserving” Ñ = natiōne, “by nation” RET = retiarius, “netter” M = myrmillo, a heavily-armed gladiator PUGNAR = pugnarum, “of contests” D = dies, “days” ANN = annōs, “years” F = fēcit, “(s)he made [this memorial]” V. = vīcit “he conquered, won” L = lībertus, -a freedman, freedwoman

31 Gladiatorial Inscriptions Gladiatorial Graffiti from Pompeii CIL IV.8055 Oceanus and Aracintus CIL IV.8056 Severus and Albanus CIL IV Monumentum Eumachiae CIL IV Crescens Gladiatorial Tombstones CIL VI, 10193P. Aelius Troadesis CIL V 1037 Passer CIL, V 3468 Pardon CIL V 3465 Generosus CIL V, 3466 Glaucus CIL II2/7, 363 Probus CIL VI, Antonius Niger CIL V, 2885 Iuvenis CIL V, 5933 Urbicus CIL _= Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum

32 Oceanus and Aracintus (CIL IV.8055)

33 Severus and Albanus (CIL IV.8056) SEVERV[S] L XIII. ΛLBΛNVS SC L XIX V. Severu[s] l(iber) (victoriarum) XIII (missus est). Albanus sc(aevus) l(iber) (victoriarum) XIX v(icit).

34 Monumentum Eumachiae (CIL IV )

35 Crescens (CIL IV. 4353) the netter of nocturnal chicks…………

36 Gladiator Cemetery Found In York England Actually, this appears to be the cemetery of the losers in the gladitorial ring. Rome occupied Great Britain between 43 and 410 AD and they brought their culture along with them, including their fun and games. Apparently, that also included gladatorial combat. But these 80 skeletons found in York represent beheaded and mauled combatants, the fellows who might be considered the losers in these battles, for though they were young and buried with some of their personal items they were not buried with the great ceremony of a victorious and retired gladiator. As the scientist in the video clip says, "No Russel Crowes here." The archaeologists caution that they believe that these skeletons might be gladiators, given the evidence but more research is needed.

37 CIL VI, 10193

38 Gladiatorial Tombstones

39 Design Your Own Tombstone for a Gladiator What to Look For? Name of Gladiator Name of Dedicator Information about Gladiator’s Career – Age at Death – Number of Victories – Homeland Information about the Gladiator’s Family Special Features?

40 Passer (CIL V 1037)

41 Pardon (CIL, V 3468)

42 Generosus CIL V, 3465

43 Glaucus (CIL V, 3466)

44 Probus CIL II2/7, 363

45 Antonius Niger (CIL VI, )

46 Iuvenis (CIL V, 2885 )

47 Ubricus (CIL V, 5933)

48 Table of Gladiatorial Epitaphs RegionROME IT(N) IT(S) HISP GALLIA TOT Commemorations by Gladiators coniugi4 4 filio 1 1 libertae 1 1 Commemorations to Gladiators coniunx filius/a patri 1 (1) (1) 1(2) parentes filio 1 1 frater1 1 libertus1 1 2 doctor 1 1 alumnus 1 1 convictor (1) 2 14(1) familia3 1(1) 2 6(1) male to male female to male 1 1 no dedicator TOTALS ___________________________________________________________________________ Spouse Vocabulary coniunx uxor conturbernalis 2 2 maritus 1 1 Note: Numbers in parentheses indicate shared commemorations.

49 Design Your Own Tombstone for a Gladiator What to Look For? Name of Gladiator Name of Dedicator Information about Gladiator’s Career – Age at Death – Number of Victories – Homeland Information about the Gladiator’s Family Special Features?

50 Tom Sienkewicz Monmouth College ACL


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