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Chariot Races & Gladiatorial Games. Chariot Races in Greece Modified War Chariots Talked about by Homer Funeral Games Olympics - popular event In Greece,

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Presentation on theme: "Chariot Races & Gladiatorial Games. Chariot Races in Greece Modified War Chariots Talked about by Homer Funeral Games Olympics - popular event In Greece,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chariot Races & Gladiatorial Games

2 Chariot Races in Greece Modified War Chariots Talked about by Homer Funeral Games Olympics - popular event In Greece, Chariots and horses were financed by one person and hired a charioteer This person got the recognition, not the charioteer Modified War Chariots Talked about by Homer Funeral Games Olympics - popular event In Greece, Chariots and horses were financed by one person and hired a charioteer This person got the recognition, not the charioteer

3 Origins in Rome Started in Rome in the 6th Century BC Romulus held a Chariot Race following the founding of Rome First race course in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine Hill - The Circus or Circus Maximus Originally only took place during religious festivals Oldest and most popular form of entertainment in Rome Started in Rome in the 6th Century BC Romulus held a Chariot Race following the founding of Rome First race course in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine Hill - The Circus or Circus Maximus Originally only took place during religious festivals Oldest and most popular form of entertainment in Rome

4 Circus Maximus Could seat 150,000 Oldest in Rome Could seat 150,000 Oldest in Rome Started as wood, made concrete later on Rebuilt by Caesar in 50 BC

5 Factiones Racing Companies 4 in Rome: Red, White, Green, Blue Had immense fan base (fan club houses) Would compete for the best drivers Opposing stables would drug horses, bribe/poison drivers Racing Companies 4 in Rome: Red, White, Green, Blue Had immense fan base (fan club houses) Would compete for the best drivers Opposing stables would drug horses, bribe/poison drivers

6 Plan of Circus Long, narrow stretch of ground Enclosed by two parallel tiers of seats United at one end with a triumphal gate (by which the winner left the circus) Ground covered with sand (harena) Long, narrow stretch of ground Enclosed by two parallel tiers of seats United at one end with a triumphal gate (by which the winner left the circus) Ground covered with sand (harena)

7 Plan continued … The Spina: the wall that divides 2/3 of the arena Once around the spina was one lap (spatium) On each end were pillars, one holding 7 eggs, the other 7 dolphins - counted laps Elaborately decorated with mosaics Missus: the length of a race, usually 7 laps Metae: goal posts marking the end of the course Calx: calk line drawn on the ground marking the finish line Carceres: barriers where the chariot teams were held before the race (usually 8) Gates would spring open at the start of the race The Spina: the wall that divides 2/3 of the arena Once around the spina was one lap (spatium) On each end were pillars, one holding 7 eggs, the other 7 dolphins - counted laps Elaborately decorated with mosaics Missus: the length of a race, usually 7 laps Metae: goal posts marking the end of the course Calx: calk line drawn on the ground marking the finish line Carceres: barriers where the chariot teams were held before the race (usually 8) Gates would spring open at the start of the race

8 The Charioteers Aurigae Drivers started as slaves Could earn enough money to buy freedom Low class, but very popular Aurigae Drivers started as slaves Could earn enough money to buy freedom Low class, but very popular

9 The Chariot Small, wooden, little protection Racer had to balance on the axle Could have 2,3,4,6,7 horse teams Most had 4 horses (quadriga) Small, wooden, little protection Racer had to balance on the axle Could have 2,3,4,6,7 horse teams Most had 4 horses (quadriga)

10 After Rome … Continued well into the Byzantine Era Last recorded race in Rome was in 549 AD Hippodrome in Constantinople used until sack of Constantine in 1204 AD Continued well into the Byzantine Era Last recorded race in Rome was in 549 AD Hippodrome in Constantinople used until sack of Constantine in 1204 AD

11 Ludi Circenses: A Day at the Races Procession 12 races (though doubled in later times) Dator ludorum – chief official of the game Not about speed Dangerous Procession 12 races (though doubled in later times) Dator ludorum – chief official of the game Not about speed Dangerous

12 “Fouling” Fouling was encouraged Drivers of same stable would team up during a race against an opponent Tried to push rivals into the spina or off the course Fouling was encouraged Drivers of same stable would team up during a race against an opponent Tried to push rivals into the spina or off the course

13 Desultores Another event in the Circus Men would ride two horses at full speed and jump back and forth Very popular in Rome Another event in the Circus Men would ride two horses at full speed and jump back and forth Very popular in Rome

14 Ben-Hur Video Clip

15 Origins of Gladiator Games Etruscan Human sacrifices at burials Campanian Slaves fought to death at banquets Greek Funeral games Rome Munera - “duties” Etruscan Human sacrifices at burials Campanian Slaves fought to death at banquets Greek Funeral games Rome Munera - “duties”

16 History of the Games Early Rome Began strictly as funeral games Funded privately First one in 264 BC Republic Remained private and related to death Becoming more popular Empire Increase popularity Publicly funded Grew in size/number of fighters (10,000 men for Augustus) Continues until 5th century A.D. Early Rome Began strictly as funeral games Funded privately First one in 264 BC Republic Remained private and related to death Becoming more popular Empire Increase popularity Publicly funded Grew in size/number of fighters (10,000 men for Augustus) Continues until 5th century A.D.

17 Who were Gladiators? War Captives Criminals (damnati) Freemen (auctorati) Women and Children War Captives Criminals (damnati) Freemen (auctorati) Women and Children

18 Schools Four in Rome: Ludus Magnus (the most famous) Ludus Dacus Ludus Gallicus Ludus Matutinus (dealt with animals) Four in Rome: Ludus Magnus (the most famous) Ludus Dacus Ludus Gallicus Ludus Matutinus (dealt with animals)

19 The Colosseum Flavian Amphitheater Built from AD (begun by Emperor Vespasian and completed by Titus) Held 50,000 people Wood floor covered with sand (harena) Hypogeum – “underground” Two levels of underground tunnels and cages that held animals and gladiators Raising platforms that would bring animals up to arena Hydraulic system that would allow the area to be flooded Flavian Amphitheater Built from AD (begun by Emperor Vespasian and completed by Titus) Held 50,000 people Wood floor covered with sand (harena) Hypogeum – “underground” Two levels of underground tunnels and cages that held animals and gladiators Raising platforms that would bring animals up to arena Hydraulic system that would allow the area to be flooded

20 The Games Night before: Banquet for fighters Morning: venatio (beast hunt); bestiarii, mock fights with wooden swords Noon: executions (ad beastias = to the beasts) Afternoon: Gladiators (main event) Night before: Banquet for fighters Morning: venatio (beast hunt); bestiarii, mock fights with wooden swords Noon: executions (ad beastias = to the beasts) Afternoon: Gladiators (main event)

21 Rewards Money and prizes Given to famous gladiators Freedom Received a wooden sword (rudis) Popularity Celebrity status Money and prizes Given to famous gladiators Freedom Received a wooden sword (rudis) Popularity Celebrity status

22 Types of Gladiators Samnites Named after a conquered Tribe of Early Rome Armed with short sword (gladius), rectangular shield (scutum) Often paired against the Thracian Thracians Modeled after Greek warriors Small bronze shield (Parma), curved sword (sicca), helmet with a face mask Often paired against Samnites Samnites Named after a conquered Tribe of Early Rome Armed with short sword (gladius), rectangular shield (scutum) Often paired against the Thracian Thracians Modeled after Greek warriors Small bronze shield (Parma), curved sword (sicca), helmet with a face mask Often paired against Samnites

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24 Types of Gladiators Mirmillo Modeled after Gallic warriors Armor made to resemble a fish (helmet) Armed with sword, large oval shield Paired against Retarius Retarius Modeled after a fisherman (means net fighter) Armored with net (rete) and trident Goal was to tangle their opponent in their next and stab them Mirmillo Modeled after Gallic warriors Armor made to resemble a fish (helmet) Armed with sword, large oval shield Paired against Retarius Retarius Modeled after a fisherman (means net fighter) Armored with net (rete) and trident Goal was to tangle their opponent in their next and stab them

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26 Other Events: Bestiarii Ad Bestias - “to the beasts” criminals were put to death by being set upon by animals The smaller the animal, the more torturous Usually tied to a pole Venatio - “Beast hunts” Trained Ad Bestias - “to the beasts” criminals were put to death by being set upon by animals The smaller the animal, the more torturous Usually tied to a pole Venatio - “Beast hunts” Trained

27 Other Events: Naumachiae Mock sea battles Flat bottomed boats Ramming, boarding and fighting with swords Reenacted famous battles from History Mock sea battles Flat bottomed boats Ramming, boarding and fighting with swords Reenacted famous battles from History

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