Presentation on theme: "Punctuation Full Stops and Capital Letters Comma Question Mark Exclamation Mark Quotation Marks Brackets or Parentheses Dash/Slash Colons Semi Colons Hyphen."— Presentation transcript:
Punctuation Full Stops and Capital Letters Comma Question Mark Exclamation Mark Quotation Marks Brackets or Parentheses Dash/Slash Colons Semi Colons Hyphen Possession Apostrophe Contraction Apostrophe Useful websites
Full Stops and Capital Letters. A capital letter is used to mark the beginning of a sentence. They are also used for the first letter of a Proper Noun. Capital letters are also used for the first letter in titles of books, magazines, Newspapers, TV shows, films etc. A full stop is used to mark the end of a sentence. It can also be used for Initials for people’s names – J.K.Rowling A full stop is also used when an abbreviation consists of a shortened word Such as – Reverend George/ Rv. George or Professor Gibb/ Prof. Gibb. HOWEVER, you do not need a full stop when an abbreviation contains the Last letter of the shortened word – Dr McDonald/Doctor REMEMBER, a full stop can be used to demarcate an indirect question – He asked If the bus had left yet.
Commas, The comma marks a short pause between words in a sentence – if you have any problems, just call me. Commas are used to separate three or more items in a list or series – eggs, bacon, sausage and beans. Commas are used to mark off words (adverbials) – Suddenly, she left the room. Commas are used between adjectives (whether they come before the noun or after – it was a hot, dry and dusty day. Commas are used before question and after “yes” or “no” in short responses – It’s quite cold today, isn’t it? Commas are used to separate the name of a person or group being addressed from the rest of the sentence – Dad, can you come and help me, please? Commas are used to follow direct speech (if there is no question or exclamation mark After the quotation, or to show what comes next – Peter said, “I don’t understand!”
Question Mark ? The question mark marks the end of a question – when will we be arriving? Question marks are used in direct questions (when the actual words of a speaker are used). – The lady said, “Where are you going?”
Exclamation Mark ! The exclamation mark is used after exclamation and emphatic expressions (expressions with feeling – wanting to exaggerate how you feel) or a command: I can’t believe it! Oh, no! Look at the mess! Stop!
Quotation Marks ‘ ‘ or “ “ Speech marks/Inverted commas Direct speech gives the actual words that a speaker used. It is common in novels and other writing where the actual words of a speaker are quoted. The words spoken are enclosed in single or double quotation marks- “Have you been to the new shopping precinct yet?” enquired Jim. Single quotation marks are sometimes used – to draw attention to a word – The word ‘book’ can be used as a noun or a verb. They can also be used to indicate an unusual use of a word – She pointed out That websites used for internet voting could be ‘spoofed’. Also, to suggest that the writer wants to be distanced from a word – I don’t Agree with this ‘bullying’ business.
Brackets () or  or Parentheses Brackets, also called (parentheses) are used to enclose a word or words which can be left out and still leave a meaningful sentence – they are an extra bit of Information which gives more detail to the sentence. The wooded area (see map below) is approximately 4,000 hectares. Brackets are also used to show alternatives or options – Any student(s) interested in taking part should e-mail me. Square brackets are used, usually in books and articles.
The Dash – The Slash/ A space dash can be used at the beginning and end of a comment that interrupts the flow of a sentence – Now children – Kenneth, stop that Immediately! – open your books on page 30. To separate extra information – Boots and shoes – all shapes and colours- tumbled out. The slash separates letters, words or numbers. It is used to indicate alternatives, ratios and ranges and in website addresses – he/she/it 200km/hr, the 2001/2 year of racing, http://www.abcdefg.comhttp://www.abcdefg.com
Colons: The colon indicates a break between two main clauses which is stronger than a Comma but weaker than a full stop. A colon is used in front of a list – I used three colours: green, blue and orange. It is used in front of an explanation or reason – Nevertheless, the main problem remained: what should be done with the two men? It is also used after introductory headings – Cooking time: about five minutes Also, in front of the second part of a book title – Farming and wildlife: a study In compromise. Finally, to introduce direct speech, especially in American and English, or when the Quotation is particularly long – He said: “You owe me three dollars and twenty-five cents”.
The Hyphen - The hyphen joins words or parts of words. They are used at the end of lines where a word has been split – wheel-barrow Prefixes that are used in front of a word beginning with a capital letter always have a hyphen after them – a wave of anti-British feeling. A hyphen is used to join two or more words that together form an adjective Where this adjective is used before the noun it describes – An up-to-date account A last-minute rush A six-year-old boy Some compound nouns are usually written with hyphens
Semicolon ; The semicolon is used to mark a break between two main clauses When there is a balance or a contrast between two clauses – The engine roared into life; the propellers began to turn. A useful clue to work out whether you need to use a semicolon is to ask yourself whether the two clauses could be written instead as separate sentences. If the answer is ‘yes’ then you can use a semicolon- I’m not interested in jazz; I prefer classical music. A semi colon is also used to separate items in a list, especially if the listed items are phrases or clauses, which may already contain a comma- The holiday was a disaster; the flight was four hours later; the hotel, which Was described as ‘luxury’, was dirty; and it rained for the whole fortnight.
Possession Apostrophe ‘ Showing possession – the apostrophe is used to show that something belongs To someone. It is usually added to the end of a word and followed by an “S” An (‘s) is added to the end of singular words – a baby’s pushchair, Hannah’s book An (‘s) is added to the end of plural words not ending in “S” – children’s games An apostrophe alone is added to plural words ending in “S” - ladies’ fashion (’s) is added to the end of names and singular words ending in “S” – James’s car (‘s) can also be added to whole phrases – my next door neighbour’s dog was barking like mad. To test whether an apostrophe is in the right place, think about who the owner Is.
Contraction Apostrophe ‘ An apostrophe is used in shortened forms of words to show that one or more letter have been missed out. It is – it’s, you will – you’ll, they are – they’re