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L62.a Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses,

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Presentation on theme: "L62.a Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses,"— Presentation transcript:

1 L62.a Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.*

2 Commas in a series Rule: Use commas to separate items in a series. A series is three or more items written one after another. The items may be single words or word groups. Example: Sugar cane, bananas, and citrus fruits are grown in Jamaica.

3 Commas in a series Some writers do not use a comma before the conjunction and, or, or nor when it joins the last two items in a series. However, sometimes such a comma is needed to make the meaning clear. So we will require the comma before the conjunction to clarify the meaning. Example: Grandma, Mom, and Dad came to the game. (Three people were at the game.) Grandma, Mom and Dad came to the game. (Grandma is being told who was at the game.)

4 1. Choose the best way to write the sentence below. We swam built sand castles and played volleyball at the beach. A. We swam built sand castles, and played volleyball at the beach. B. We swam, built sand castles and played volleyball at the beach. C. We swam, built sand castles, and played volleyball at the beach. D. correct as is

5 1. Choose the best way to write the sentence below. We swam built sand castles and played volleyball at the beach. A. We swam built sand castles, and played volleyball at the beach. B. We swam, built sand castles and played volleyball at the beach. C. We swam, built sand castles, and played volleyball at the beach. D. correct as is

6 2. Choose the best way to write the sentence below. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog and a cat and a hamster and a bird. A. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog, and a cat, and a hamster, and a bird. B. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog, a cat, a hamster, and a bird. C. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog and a cat, a hamster, and a bird. D. correct as is.

7 2. Choose the best way to write the sentence below. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog and a cat and a hamster and a bird. A. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog, and a cat, and a hamster, and a bird. B. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog, a cat, a hamster, and a bird. C. For her birthday on September 27, my sister wants a dog and a cat, a hamster, and a bird. D. correct as is.

8 The Comma in the Coordinate Adjective Rule: “Coordinate adjectives” are adjectives placed next to each other that are equal in importance. Two tests to determine whether adjectives are coordinate are the following: 1. See whether “and” can be smoothly placed between them. 2. See whether the adjectives’ order can be reversed. Example: We saw a happy, lively poodle. In this example, a comma belongs between happy and lively because they are coordinate adjectives.

9 The Comma in the Coordinate Adjective Test to make certain: First, try the “and” test: We saw a happy (and) lively puppy. And placed between the 2 adjectives sounds smooth. Second, try reversing the adjectives: We saw a lively, happy puppy. When the adjectives are reversed, the sentence still makes sense. Thus, happy and lively are coordinate adjectives in the example and should be separated by a comma.

10 3. Should a comma be placed in this sentence? Explain your reasoning. We saw a young golden retriever.

11 3. Should a comma be placed in this sentence? Explain your reasoning. We saw a young golden retriever. No. A comma is not needed in this sentence. You cannot put and between the adjectives, and reversing the order of the adjectives does not make sense.

12 4. Should a comma be placed in this sentence? Explain your reasoning. She ate the sweet juicy apple with a vengeance.

13 4. Should a comma be placed in this sentence? Explain your reasoning. She ate the sweet juicy apple with a vengeance. Yes, a comma is needed in this sentence. It makes sense to say sweet and juicy. It also makes sense to say a juicy and sweet apple.

14 Commas in dialogue: Rule: When the dialogue tag comes before the spoken words, use a comma before the quotation marks. Example: Mrs. Talbott said, “Please get a pencil.”

15 Commas in dialogue: Rule: If the quotation comes before the dialogue tag and would normally end with a period, use a comma instead. Example: “Dogs make better pets than cats do,” said Frank.

16 Commas in dialogue: Rule: If the dialogue tag interrupts a quoted sentence, a comma usually follows the first part of the quoted sentence and a second comma follows the dialogue tag. Example: “Oh,” Donna commented, “he’s probably just saying that because he’s never had a cat.”

17 5. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. Barbara asked Who will bring the sandwiches and drinks? A. Barbara asked “Who will bring the sandwiches and drinks?” B. Barbara asked, ”Who will bring the sandwiches and drinks?” C. Barbara asked, “Who will bring the sandwiches, and drinks?” D. Barbara asked, “Who will bring the sandwiches, and, drinks?”

18 5. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. Barbara asked Who will bring the sandwiches and drinks? A. Barbara asked “Who will bring the sandwiches and drinks?” B. Barbara asked, ”Who will bring the sandwiches and drinks?” C. Barbara asked, “Who will bring the sandwiches, and drinks?” D. Barbara asked, “Who will bring the sandwiches, and, drinks?”

19 6. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes Maria remarked and later she worked on canvas wood and paper. A. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes,” Maria remarked, “and later she worked on canvas, wood, and paper.” B. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes,” Maria remarked “and later she worked on canvas, wood, and paper.” C. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes” Maria remarked, “and later she worked on canvas wood and paper”. D. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes” Maria remarked, “and later she worked on canvas, wood, and paper.”

20 6. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes Maria remarked and later she worked on canvas wood and paper. A. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes,” Maria remarked, “and later she worked on canvas, wood, and paper.” B. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes,” Maria remarked “and later she worked on canvas, wood, and paper.” C. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes” Maria remarked, “and later she worked on canvas wood and paper”. D. “Clementine Hunter’s early artwork was painted on brown paper bags and cardboard boxes” Maria remarked, “and later she worked on canvas, wood, and paper.”

21 Compound Sentences Rule: Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet to join two independent clauses that form a compound sentence. Example: He will be elected tomorrow, and he will be a good leader.

22 7. Choose the best way to revised this sentence No students stood in line so Mary walked straight to the registration table. A.No students stood in line so, Mary walked straight to the registration table. B.No students stood in line, so Mary walked straight to the registration table. C.No students, stood in line so Mary walked straight to the registration table. D.Correct as is

23 7. Choose the best way to revised this sentence No students stood in line so Mary walked straight to the registration table. A.No students stood in line so, Mary walked straight to the registration table. B.No students stood in line, so Mary walked straight to the registration table. C.No students, stood in line so Mary walked straight to the registration table. D.Correct as is

24 8. Choose the best way to revised this sentence The band and the cheerleaders gave the team plenty of support. A.The band, and the cheerleaders gave the team plenty of support. B.The band and, the cheerleaders gave the team plenty of support. C.The band and the cheerleaders, gave the team plenty of support. D.correct as is

25 8. Choose the best way to revised this sentence The band and the cheerleaders gave the team plenty of support. A.The band, and the cheerleaders gave the team plenty of support. B.The band and, the cheerleaders gave the team plenty of support. C.The band and the cheerleaders, gave the team plenty of support. D.correct as is

26 Interrupters Rule: Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence. Two commas are used to set off an interrupting expression – one before and one after the expression. If an interrupter comes at the beginning or end of the sentence, only one comma is needed. Example: My favorite gospel singers, BeBe and CeCe Winans, were on TV last night. As you leave, Jesse, please close the door quietly. Yes, I’ll call back later.

27 9. Use commas to punctuate the sentence correctly: Our hosts Mr. and Mrs. Worthington greeted us at the entrance.

28 9. Use commas to punctuate the sentence correctly: Our hosts, Mr. and Mrs. Worthington, greeted us at the entrance.

29 10. Choose the best way to write this sentence. A. How long have you worked here, David? B. How, long have you worked here, David? C. How long, have you worked here David? D. How long have you worked, here David?

30 10. Choose the best way to write this sentence. A. How long have you worked here, David? B. How, long have you worked here, David? C. How long, have you worked here David? D. How long have you worked, here David?

31 Commas in appositives Rule: Use commas to set off appositives and appositive phrases that are not necessary to the meaning of a sentence. An appositive is a noun or a pronoun that identifies or describes another noun or pronoun beside it. An appositive phrase is an appositive with its modifiers. Example: A gymnast, Mrs. Shaw, will coach us. (Mrs. Shaw identifies the gymnast.) This book is about geology, the science of the earth and its rocks. (The science of the earth and its rocks is an appositive phrase that identifies geology.

32 11. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. A. The park a beautiful place for a party was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand. B. The park, a beautiful place for a party was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand. C. The park, a beautiful place for a party, was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand. D. The park a beautiful place for a party, was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand.

33 11. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. A. The park a beautiful place for a party was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand. B. The park, a beautiful place for a party was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand. C. The park, a beautiful place for a party, was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand. D. The park a beautiful place for a party, was lit by streetlights and had a bandstand.

34 12. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. A. Do you see an empty table a quiet place for conversation? B. Do you see an empty table, a quiet place for, conversation? C. Do you see, an empty table, a quiet place for conversation? D. Do you see an empty table, a quiet place for conversation?

35 12. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. A. Do you see an empty table a quiet place for conversation? B. Do you see an empty table, a quiet place for, conversation? C. Do you see, an empty table, a quiet place for conversation? D. Do you see an empty table, a quiet place for conversation?

36 Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses Rule: Introductory clauses are dependent clauses that provide background information or "set the stage" for the main part of the sentence, the independent clause.

37 Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses Introductory elements often require a comma, but not always. Use a comma in the following cases: After yes, no, or any mild interjection. (Yes, you may use my pencil.) After two or more introductory prepositional phrases (In the valley at the base of the hill, a herd of buffalo graze.

38 Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses After an introductory clause (If they want to win, athletes must exercise every day.) After a long introductory prepositional phrase (On a winter morning when Kenon discovered the strange visitor, the rosebush was in full bloom.) If an introductory prepositional phrase is short, a comma is optional. (In the morning, we’ll tour the zoo. or In the morning we’ll tour the zoo.)

39 13. Choose the best way to revised this sentence Throughout the land the king ruled with an iron fist. A.Throughout, the land the king ruled with an iron fist. B.Throughout the land the king, ruled with an iron fist. C.Throughout the land, the king ruled with an iron fist. D.Correct as is

40 13. Choose the best way to revised this sentence Throughout the land the king ruled with an iron fist. A.Throughout, the land the king ruled with an iron fist. B.Throughout the land the king, ruled with an iron fist. C.Throughout the land, the king ruled with an iron fist. D.Correct as is

41 14. Choose the best way to revised this sentence However the fire burned rapidly. A.However, the fire burned rapidly. B.However the fire burned, rapidly. C.However the fire, burned rapidly. D.Correct as is

42 14. Choose the best way to revised this sentence However the fire burned rapidly. A.However, the fire burned rapidly. B.However the fire burned, rapidly. C.However the fire, burned rapidly. D.Correct as is

43 Commas in conventional situations: Rule: Place a comma between the date and year. Example: I was born on July 17, 1988.

44 Commas in conventional situations: Rule: Place a comma between the city and state in an address. Example: Do you currently live in Columbia, South Carolina?

45 Commas in conventional situations: Note that a comma is used to separate the last item in a date or in an address from the words that follow it. However, a comma does NOT separate a month from a day (July 17) or a house number from a street name (8000 Alexandria Pike).

46 15. Choose the best way to write the sentence below: A. I was born in Los Angeles California, and later moved to Detroit Michigan. B. I was born in Los Angeles, California, and later moved to Detroit Michigan. C. I was born in Los Angeles, California and later moved to Detroit, Michigan. D. I was born in, Los Angeles, California and later moved to, Detroit, Michigan.

47 15. Choose the best way to write the sentence below: A. I was born in Los Angeles California, and later moved to Detroit Michigan. B. I was born in Los Angeles, California, and later moved to Detroit Michigan. C. I was born in Los Angeles, California and later moved to Detroit, Michigan. D. I was born in, Los Angeles, California and later moved to, Detroit, Michigan.

48 16. Choose the best way to write the sentence below: Today is Monday, October 14, A. Today is Monday October, B. Today is Monday October 14, C. Today is Monday, October D. Correct as is

49 16. Choose the best way to write the sentence below: Today is Monday, October 14, A. Today is Monday October, B. Today is Monday October 14, C. Today is Monday, October D. Correct as is

50 Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive clauses Restrictive An adjective clause that cannot be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence. Restrictive clauses should not be set off by commas. Example: The package that came last Tuesday is on your desk

51 Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive clauses Nonrestrictive An adjective clause that can be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should be set off by commas. Nonrestrictive clauses cannot begin with “that.” Example: John Wayne, who appeared in over 200 movies, was the biggest box-office attraction of his time.

52 17. Is the underlined clause restrictive or nonrestrictive? Explain your reasoning. The newspaper that is on the table has an interesting article on polar bears.

53 17. Is the underlined clause restrictive or nonrestrictive? Explain your reasoning. The newspaper that is on the table has an interesting article on polar bears. This is a restrictive clause. You would not know which newspaper had the interesting article about polar bears if that part was left out.

54 18. Is the underlined clause restrictive or nonrestrictive? Explain your reasoning. Professor Hatch, who teaches English 101, is an excellent professor.

55 18. Is the underlined clause restrictive or nonrestrictive? Explain your reasoning. Professor Hatch, who teaches English 101, is an excellent professor. This is a non-restrictive clause. We don’t need to know what Professor Hatch teaches to know that he is an excellent professor. If the underlined part was omitted, we would still know who is a great professor.

56 Parentheses Rule: Use parentheses to enclose material that is added to a sentence but is not considered of major importance. Example: Central Park (it’s two and a half miles long) is a New York City attraction.

57 Parentheses Text enclosed in parentheses may be as short as a single word or as long as a short sentence. A short sentence in parentheses may stand alone or be contained within another sentence. Notice that a parenthetical sentence within a sentence is not capitalized and has no end mark. Examples: Please be quiet and respectful during the ceremony. (Turn off your cell phones.) The first metal-framed skyscraper (it was ten stories tall) was built in Chicago in 1885.

58 19. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. A. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States B. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States, C. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States ( ). D. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States

59 19. Choose the best way to revise this sentence. A. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States B. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States, C. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States ( ). D. Electricity became widespread during the industrialization of the United States

60 20. Re-write the sentence using parentheses. Thomas Edison did not have a formal education his mother taught him at home, but he became a millionaire before he was fifty.

61 20. Re-write the sentence using parentheses. Thomas Edison did not have a formal education (his mother taught him at home), but he became a millionaire before he was fifty.

62 Dashes Rule: Use a dash to enclose material that needs a stronger emphasis. Example: We went to Central Park for a picnic – it was such fun—on Sunday afternoon.

63 21. Why did the author of “Ta-Na-E-Ka” use dashes instead of parentheses in the sentence below? “No other Indian tribe—and I’ve spent half a lifetime researching the subject—treated women more ‘equally’ than the Kaw.”

64 21. Why did the author of “Ta-Na-E-Ka” use dashes instead of parentheses in the sentence below? “No other Indian tribe—and I’ve spent half a lifetime researching the subject—treated women more ‘equally’ than the Kaw.” The writer wanted to show how hard she long she has spent researching so we can understand how knowledgeable she is about the topic.

65 22. Choose the best way to revise the sentence below: A. I knew the material perfectly until test day. B. I knew the material perfectly (until test day). C. I knew the material perfectly, until test day. D. I knew the material perfectly—until test day.

66 22. Choose the best way to revise the sentence below: A. I knew the material perfectly until test day. B. I knew the material perfectly (until test day). C. I knew the material perfectly, until test day. D. I knew the material perfectly—until test day.


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