Presentation on theme: "Using Dashes and Parentheses _ (and). Standard ELACC8L2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling."— Presentation transcript:
Using Dashes and Parentheses _ (and)
Standard ELACC8L2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. b. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. c. Spell correctly.
Parentheses Parentheses are punctuation marks that set off material that has been included in a sentence but that doesn’t fit with the flow of the sentence. (parentheses) Ex. Occasionally people (including good friends) can act cruelly.
Parentheses Might Also Set off dates Philadelphia's Yellow Fever epidemic (1793) killed a record number of people. Clarify information In the North, people often eat popovers (a light, hollow bread roll) for breakfast. Define an abbreviation I am considering applying to USC (University of South Carolina Cite a source Mattie endured a week of “unceasing heat” (Anderson 34).
Parentheses Usage 1 If the parentheses interrupt the sentence, don’t capitalize anything inside of them. Ex. Muhammed Ali (arguably the greatest boxer of all time) claimed he would "float like a butterfly, sting like a bee."
Parentheses Usage 2 Don’t use any end punctuation within the parentheses unless it makes sense to add a question mark Ex. Thirty-five years after his death, Robert Frost (do you remember him?) remains America's favorite poet.
Parentheses usage 3 You may use both capitalization and punctuation if the information is a completely separate sentence. Ex. In the Victorian Era, ladies were not allowed to show their ankles in public. (Now such a rule seems silly.)
Dash vs. Hyphen A dash is basically a long hyphen Hyphen: - Dash: or -- A Hyphen is used to join words to form new ones, to hyphenate between syllables when changing lines mid word, or to show a range (1-100). Dashes are used when joining or separating ideas in a sentence.
Dash Usage 1 A dash is used to set off material that has been added to a sentence, but that is not considered of major importance. (Kind of like parentheses). Example: Mr. Lee would be good at the job—he has tons of prior experience—but he probably won’t take it.
Dash Usage 2 A Dash Can Also set off an appositive that already contains commas My cousins—Tina, Todd, and Sam—arrived at the party together. (You can achieve the same effect with a colon).
Dash Usage 3 A Dash can also show a sudden break in thoughts or an interruption in speech Example: The chemistry student began to say, “An organic solvent will only work with—” when her cell phone rang. *Note-a dash is more abrupt than an ellipsis
Dash Usage 4 Or replace words like “such as” or “it is” Example: There was only one person who could save the city—Batman.
Dash Rule 5 Use a dash if a person is stammering or faltering in speech. Example: “But-but-I didn’t do anything wrong!” Keith protested.
Dash or Parentheses? Note that parentheses tend to de-emphasize text whereas dashes tend to make material seem even more important.
But Really… One should avoid dashes and parentheses if possible. If the material is important enough, use some other means of including it within your text—even if it means writing another sentence.