Presentation on theme: "Presented by Stephanie Hickey"— Presentation transcript:
1Presented by Stephanie Hickey Punctuate Your LifePresented by Stephanie Hickey
2Punctuation in Review Terminal Marks Apostrophes Hyphens Dashes AKA End PunctuationApostrophesHyphensDashes
3Terminal Marks . ? !The terminal marks, or end punctuation marks, includethe period (.)the question mark (?)the exclamation point (!)Terminal marks end sentences.
4The Period .“A period is used to end all sentences except direct questions or genuine exclamations” (Bedford Handbook, ed. 6).Some imperative sentences end with a period.In other words, periods are used to end declarative sentences.A declarative sentence is one that simply states a fact or argument, without requiring an answer or action from the reader.
5The Question Mark ?The most obvious and only use for the question mark is to end a question.There are two types of questions: interrogative and rhetorical.An interrogative sentence asks a direct question whereas a rhetorical question is a question that the audience or reader is not expected to answer.
6The Exclamation Point !Use an exclamation point after an expression of strong feeling or for emphasis.The two types of sentences that end with exclamation points are the exclamatory sentence or exclamation and the imperative sentence.An exclamatory sentence is a more forceful version of a declarative sentence.An imperative sentence gives a direct command to someone and does not need or use a subject.I like to call this the exciting exclamation point!However, you should use this mark sparingly.
7Examples I heard that Julia won a million dollars in the lottery. Did Julia win a milliondollars in the lotteryJulia won a millionDid Julia win a milliondollars in the lottery?Julia won a milliondollars in the lottery!
8Apostrophes ’ Use the apostrophe in three ways! 1) to form possessives of nounsThe racer’s car2) to show the omission of letters3) to indicate plurals of lowercase letters.He’s got a friend who loves the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO’s design.Remember, though, apostrophes are NOT used for possessive pronouns or for noun plurals, including acronyms.
9Forming possessives of nouns To see if you need to make a possessive, change the phrase around and make it an “of the…” phrase.For example:the girl's sweater = the sweater of the girlthree nights’ walk = walk of three nightsIf the noun after “of” is a building, an object, or a piece of furniture, no apostrophe is needed.room of the hotel = hotel roomdoor of the car = car doorleg of the table = table leg
10Rules Of Creating Posessives add 's to the singular form of the word (even if it ends in -s):the owner's carJames's hatadd 's to the plural forms that do not end in -s:the children's gamethe geese's honkingadd 's to the end of plural nouns that end in -s:houses' roofsthree friends' lettersadd 's to the end of compound words:my brother-in-law's moneyadd 's to the last noun to show joint possession of an object:Todd and Anne's apartment
11Showing the Omission of Letters Apostrophes are used in contractions.A contraction is a word where letters have been omitted and replaced by an apostrophe.Everybody uses them.Creating a contraction:place an apostrophe where the omitted letter(s) would go.Here are some examples:don't = do notI'm = I amshouldn't = should notdidn't = did notcould've = could have (NOT "could of"!)'60 = 1960
12Forming plurals of lowercase letters Apostrophes are used to form plurals of letters that appear in lowercase; here the rule appears to be more typographical than grammatical, e.g. "three ps" versus "three p's." To form the plural of a lowercase letter, place 's after the letter. There is no need for apostrophes indicating a plural on capitalized letters, numbers, and symbols (though keep in mind that some editors, teachers, and professors still prefer them). Here are some examples:p's and q's = a phrase indicating politeness, possibly from "mind your pleases and thankyous"?Nita's mother constantly stressed minding one's p's and q's.three Macintosh G4s = three of the Macintosh model G4There are two G4s currently used in the writing classrom.many &s = many ampersandsThat printed page has too many &s on it.
13Apostrophe AbuseDon't use apostrophes for possessive pronouns or for noun plurals.Apostrophes should not be used with possessive pronouns. Possessive pronouns already show possession – so they don't need an apostrophe. His, her, its, my, yours, ours are all possessive pronouns. Here are some examples:wrong: his' dogcorrect: his dogwrong: The group made it's decision.correct: The group made its decision.(Note: Its and it's mean different things. It's is a contraction for "it is" and its is a possesive pronoun meaning "belonging to it." It's raining out= it is raining out. A simple way to remember this rule is the fact that you don't use an apostrophe for the possesives his or hers, so don't do it with its!)wrong: a friend of yours'correct: a friend of yourswrong: She waited for five hours' to get her license.correct: She waited for five hours to get her license.
14Proofreading Proofreading for apostrophes: Always proofread when you finish writing a paper. It may also be helpful to analyze your work as you go along.Try the following strategies:If you tend to leave out apostrophes, check every word that ends in -s or -es to see if it needs an apostrophe.If you put in too many apostrophes, check every apostrophe to see if you can justify it with a rule for using apostrophes.
15DashesUse a dash to indicate a sudden shift or break in the thought of a sentence or to set off an informal or emphatic parenthesisUse dashes to set off an appositive or aparenthetical element that is internally punctuatedIn other words, use dashes instead parentheses
16HyphenUse a hyphen to join two or more words that serve as a single adjective before a noun:one-way streetUse a hyphen with compound numbersForty-six or sixty-threeUse a hyphen to avoid confusion or an awkward combination of lettersRe-sign
17Hyphens Continued!Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex- (meaning former), self-, all-; with the suffix -elect; between a prefix and a capitalized word; and with figures or lettersEx-husbandmid-Septembermid-1980sUse a hyphen to divide words at the end of a line if necessary, and make the break only between syllables1. Pre-face