2 CitingYou must cite in-text after you use a source and have a works cited page at the end of the paper. This is a part of the paper and should have a header as well. When citing, always put the first thing from the works cited page before a comma or period in the parenthesis. For a website, there is no page number. For a book, put the page number.
3 How to Cite/SupportCiting a summary: When you are done quoting or summarizing you need to cite where that info came from so it doesn’t look as though you are claiming it for yourself or so the reader can reference it themselves.A summary of the source would be here (Russell-Read 4).This is often several lines long. Just cite when you are done summarizing. In place of my name would be the author’s last name and in place of the number would be the page number you got the ideas from.
4 Direct Quotes If you are only citing a short line or two of material then it is best to directly quote the material so the reader can see exactly what it says in the author’s own words. A good rule of thumb is that you will have about two quotes per paragraph. Any more than this says you are either cramming too many points into one paragraph or you are not making enough points and keeping offering quotes for the same point over and over – neither is good! You should never, ever, ever quote and then quote again. You need to explain how that quote relates to your point before giving support for another point!
5 Example of Citing a Direct Quote “The quote is here” (Russell-Read 4). Note that, just as in the summary citation, the parenthesis are inside the punctuation and the last name and page number appear with no punctuation between them. When citing an internet source you will not have the page number.
6 Sometimes confusing . . .Author’s last name citations can be difficult because there are sooooo many special circumstances involved. The author’s last name does not have to appear in the parenthesis if it mentioned earlier in the sentence because you have already credited them. An example of the above:Mrs. Russell-Read claims that citations can sometimes be confusing (4).
7 OmissionsSometimes you will not want to quote all of a sentence so you will need to show that you have altered the sentence. Remember, quotes should be short and fairly infrequent.“Sometimes... citations can be difficult” (Russell-Read 4).Note that where words have been taken out three periods with a space between each one and on either side of the end ones have been added (elipsses). The rest is still the same.
8 Changes to the quoteEven though you are quoting, you must always make sure that the sentence is grammatically correct. You may change a quote by adding brackets around what you have changed to make the sentence correct.The boys must make their own heat by “play[ing] until [their] bodies glowed” (Joyce 30).The verb has been conjugated to make it grammatically correct and “our” has been replaced by their. When replacing a word entirely you must put brackets around the whole thing and leave out the word you have changed.
9 InsertionsSometimes you will have to add information to the quote so that is makes sense.“They [the students] hated writing essays” (Russell-Read 4).Typically, unless already stated in the sentence or quote, you will do this for pronouns.
10 FYI:A quote can never stand alone as a sentence. In other words, your words must appear in the sentence that contains a quote. Typically, you will introduce quotes by stating where the info came from (who wrote it, what journal it came from, etc.). This gives your paper authority, which you must do. Be sure to cite at the end of the sentence. If done correctly, quotes will not interrupt the flow of reading an essay. Summarizing sources is always a good tactic for not interrupting the flow of an essay. Basic facts or history that sets up your point should be summarized. You really only should directly quote something short or something so powerfully written that you don’t think you could reword it and keep the meaning. Quotes longer than 5 lines have a different format, so check their length. Really, no direct quotes should be this long.