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Riverine Cultures & Civilization, 3500 - 2000BCE I.Emergence of Civilization II.Control of Civilizations IDs: Gilgamesh, Standard of Ur, Horus.

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Presentation on theme: "Riverine Cultures & Civilization, 3500 - 2000BCE I.Emergence of Civilization II.Control of Civilizations IDs: Gilgamesh, Standard of Ur, Horus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Riverine Cultures & Civilization, BCE I.Emergence of Civilization II.Control of Civilizations IDs: Gilgamesh, Standard of Ur, Horus

2 Argument In the riverine cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River and China, civilization was based upon unions of kingship and religion and social hierarchies, in which elite groups controlled surplus production, building programs & writing.

3 I. Emergence of Civilization A BCE: Village agriculture & pastoral nomadism

4 B. Six “First” Civilizations, BCE

5 C. Riverine Cultures (River Valley Civilizations) Mesopotamia: 3500 BCE (Tigris & Euphrates) Egypt: 3000 BCE (Nile) Indus Valley: 3000 BCE (Indus) China: 2200 BCE (Yellow & Yangzi)

6 Why there? Old argument – rivers New argument – dense population

7 D. Characteristics of Civilization 1. Cities

8 City walls & gates Babylon Ishtar Gate

9

10 2. Occupational Specialization

11 Highly productive agriculture Art Monumental Buildings

12 3. Complex Religious & Political Structures

13 a. Temples and palaces Mesopotamian ziggurat

14 b. Bureaucracies of Priests & Specialized Officials Writing Mesopotamia: Cuneiform

15 Egypt: Hieroglyphics & Demotic Script

16 China: Oracle Bones Divination

17 4. Distinct Social Classes & Social Hierarchy Elites Religion (priests) Kingship (kings, nobles) Elites

18 Mesopotamian Social Hierarchy Priests Kings Officers, Bureaucrats & Specialized Craftsmen (Patricians) Dependent Workers (Plebeians) Slaves

19 Standard of Ur ( BCE)

20

21 Egyptian Social Hierarchy Elites: High Priests & Nobles Pharaoh Local Officials, Lesser Priests & Nobles Peasants Slaves

22 II. Control of Civilizations A. Mesopotamia 1. City-states (political organization)

23 2. Union of Religion & Kingship Mesopotamian city gods

24 3. Divine legitimacy for king’s rule Gilgamesh Enkidu Enlil

25 4. Building Programs Babylon Ishtar Gate

26 5. Writing Cuneiform Epic of Gilgamesh

27 Later: States Sargon the Great of Akkad (reigned BCE)

28 B. Egypt 1.Union of Kingship & Religion Osiris Isis Horus dead pharaoh = Osiris live pharaoh = Horus

29 2. Divine legitimacy Horus King as shepherd

30 3. Building Programs

31 4. Writing Hieroglyphics & Demotic Script

32 Argument In the riverine cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River and China, civilization was based upon unions of kingship and religion and social hierarchies, in which elite groups controlled surplus production, building programs & writing.


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